This research examines residential satisfaction in a large Public Rental Housing (PRH) program in the developing municipality of Chongqing, a city located in western China. Twenty-three critical factors were identified through intensive literature review and incorporated into a large-sample survey of eight residential estates of PRH in Chongqing. The survey data were analysed using factor analysis, one sample T-test, stepwise multiple regression analysis, and ANOVA. The results showed generally, the residents neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction with their current housing situation in the estates sampled. Five domains of residential satisfaction were identified ranging from dwelling features, dwelling facilities, public facilities, neighbourhood environment to housing policy. Factors in the domain of dwelling features, dwelling facilities and housing policies were found to make positive contribution to the residential satisfaction, while negative contributions were made by the factors in the domains of public facilities and neighbourhood environment. Three key determinants of overall residential satisfaction were identified using multiple regression, namely public facilities, neighbourhood environment and housing policies. In addition, the results revealed that age, education, family income, residence length and housing type have significant impact on residential satisfaction with PRH programs. Consequently, related policy interventions could be introduced to improve the residential satisfaction in public rental housing.