Exercise-induced tendon and bone injury in recreational runners: A test-retest reliability study

Renae Domaschenz, Nicole Vlahovich, Justin W L Keogh, Stacey Compton, David Hughes

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Abstract

Background: Long-distance runners are prone to injuries including Achilles tendinopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome. We have developed an Internet comprehensive self-report questionnaire examining the medical history, injury history, and running habits of adult recreational runners.

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate two alternative forms of test-retest reliability of a comprehensive self-report Internet questionnaire retrospectively examining the medical history, injury history, and running habits among a sample of adult recreational runners. This will contribute to the broad aims of a wider study investigating genetics and running injury.

Methods: Invitations to complete an Internet questionnaire were sent by email to a convenience pilot population (test group 1). Inclusion criteria required participants to be a recreational runner age 18 or over, who ran over 15 km per week on a consistent basis. The survey questions addressed regular running habits and any injuries (including signs, symptoms, and diagnosis) of the lower limbs that resulted in discontinuation of running for a period of 2 consecutive weeks or more, within the last 2 years. Questions also addressed general health, age, sex, height, weight, and ethnic background. Participants were then asked to repeat the survey using the Internet platform again after 10-14 days. Following analysis of test group 1, we soft-launched the survey to a larger population (test group 2), through a local running club of 900 members via email platform. The same inclusion criteria applied, however, participants were asked to complete a repeat of the survey by telephone interview after 7-10 days. Selected key questions, important to clarify inclusion or exclusion from the wider genetics study, were selected to evaluate test-retest reliability. Reliability was quantified using the kappa coefficient for categorical data.

Results: In response to the invitation, 28 participants accessed the survey from test group 1, 23 completed the Internet survey on the first occasion, and 20 completed the Internet retest within 10-21 days. Test-retest reliability scored moderate to almost perfect (kappa = .41 to.99) for 19/19 of the key questions analyzed. Following the invitation, 122 participants accessed the survey from test group 2, 101 completed the Internet survey on the first occasion, and 50 were randomly selected and contacted by email inviting them to repeat the survey by telephone interview. There were 33 participants that consented to the telephone interview and 30 completed the questionnaire within 7-10 days. Test-retest reliability scored moderate to almost perfect for 18/19 (kappa = .41 to.99) and slight for 1/19 of the key questions analyzed. Conclusions: We successfully developed a self-reported, retrospective questionnaire, delivered using Internet software, providing stable and reliable answers. We demonstrate that our survey provides a relatively quick, easy to complete, and cost effective method to collect epidemiological data from recreational runners and evaluate these participants for inclusion into a genetic study.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere117
Number of pages11
JournalJMIR Research Protocols
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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Tendon Injuries
Reproducibility of Results
Exercise
Bone and Bones
Internet
Running
Wounds and Injuries
Habits
Surveys and Questionnaires
Interviews
Population Groups
Self Report
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome
Tendinopathy

Cite this

Domaschenz, Renae ; Vlahovich, Nicole ; Keogh, Justin W L ; Compton, Stacey ; Hughes, David. / Exercise-induced tendon and bone injury in recreational runners: A test-retest reliability study. In: JMIR Research Protocols. 2015 ; Vol. 4, No. 4.
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title = "Exercise-induced tendon and bone injury in recreational runners: A test-retest reliability study",
abstract = "Background: Long-distance runners are prone to injuries including Achilles tendinopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome. We have developed an Internet comprehensive self-report questionnaire examining the medical history, injury history, and running habits of adult recreational runners. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate two alternative forms of test-retest reliability of a comprehensive self-report Internet questionnaire retrospectively examining the medical history, injury history, and running habits among a sample of adult recreational runners. This will contribute to the broad aims of a wider study investigating genetics and running injury. Methods: Invitations to complete an Internet questionnaire were sent by email to a convenience pilot population (test group 1). Inclusion criteria required participants to be a recreational runner age 18 or over, who ran over 15 km per week on a consistent basis. The survey questions addressed regular running habits and any injuries (including signs, symptoms, and diagnosis) of the lower limbs that resulted in discontinuation of running for a period of 2 consecutive weeks or more, within the last 2 years. Questions also addressed general health, age, sex, height, weight, and ethnic background. Participants were then asked to repeat the survey using the Internet platform again after 10-14 days. Following analysis of test group 1, we soft-launched the survey to a larger population (test group 2), through a local running club of 900 members via email platform. The same inclusion criteria applied, however, participants were asked to complete a repeat of the survey by telephone interview after 7-10 days. Selected key questions, important to clarify inclusion or exclusion from the wider genetics study, were selected to evaluate test-retest reliability. Reliability was quantified using the kappa coefficient for categorical data. Results: In response to the invitation, 28 participants accessed the survey from test group 1, 23 completed the Internet survey on the first occasion, and 20 completed the Internet retest within 10-21 days. Test-retest reliability scored moderate to almost perfect (kappa = .41 to.99) for 19/19 of the key questions analyzed. Following the invitation, 122 participants accessed the survey from test group 2, 101 completed the Internet survey on the first occasion, and 50 were randomly selected and contacted by email inviting them to repeat the survey by telephone interview. There were 33 participants that consented to the telephone interview and 30 completed the questionnaire within 7-10 days. Test-retest reliability scored moderate to almost perfect for 18/19 (kappa = .41 to.99) and slight for 1/19 of the key questions analyzed. Conclusions: We successfully developed a self-reported, retrospective questionnaire, delivered using Internet software, providing stable and reliable answers. We demonstrate that our survey provides a relatively quick, easy to complete, and cost effective method to collect epidemiological data from recreational runners and evaluate these participants for inclusion into a genetic study.",
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Exercise-induced tendon and bone injury in recreational runners: A test-retest reliability study. / Domaschenz, Renae; Vlahovich, Nicole; Keogh, Justin W L; Compton, Stacey; Hughes, David.

In: JMIR Research Protocols, Vol. 4, No. 4, e117, 2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Exercise-induced tendon and bone injury in recreational runners: A test-retest reliability study

AU - Domaschenz, Renae

AU - Vlahovich, Nicole

AU - Keogh, Justin W L

AU - Compton, Stacey

AU - Hughes, David

PY - 2015

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N2 - Background: Long-distance runners are prone to injuries including Achilles tendinopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome. We have developed an Internet comprehensive self-report questionnaire examining the medical history, injury history, and running habits of adult recreational runners. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate two alternative forms of test-retest reliability of a comprehensive self-report Internet questionnaire retrospectively examining the medical history, injury history, and running habits among a sample of adult recreational runners. This will contribute to the broad aims of a wider study investigating genetics and running injury. Methods: Invitations to complete an Internet questionnaire were sent by email to a convenience pilot population (test group 1). Inclusion criteria required participants to be a recreational runner age 18 or over, who ran over 15 km per week on a consistent basis. The survey questions addressed regular running habits and any injuries (including signs, symptoms, and diagnosis) of the lower limbs that resulted in discontinuation of running for a period of 2 consecutive weeks or more, within the last 2 years. Questions also addressed general health, age, sex, height, weight, and ethnic background. Participants were then asked to repeat the survey using the Internet platform again after 10-14 days. Following analysis of test group 1, we soft-launched the survey to a larger population (test group 2), through a local running club of 900 members via email platform. The same inclusion criteria applied, however, participants were asked to complete a repeat of the survey by telephone interview after 7-10 days. Selected key questions, important to clarify inclusion or exclusion from the wider genetics study, were selected to evaluate test-retest reliability. Reliability was quantified using the kappa coefficient for categorical data. Results: In response to the invitation, 28 participants accessed the survey from test group 1, 23 completed the Internet survey on the first occasion, and 20 completed the Internet retest within 10-21 days. Test-retest reliability scored moderate to almost perfect (kappa = .41 to.99) for 19/19 of the key questions analyzed. Following the invitation, 122 participants accessed the survey from test group 2, 101 completed the Internet survey on the first occasion, and 50 were randomly selected and contacted by email inviting them to repeat the survey by telephone interview. There were 33 participants that consented to the telephone interview and 30 completed the questionnaire within 7-10 days. Test-retest reliability scored moderate to almost perfect for 18/19 (kappa = .41 to.99) and slight for 1/19 of the key questions analyzed. Conclusions: We successfully developed a self-reported, retrospective questionnaire, delivered using Internet software, providing stable and reliable answers. We demonstrate that our survey provides a relatively quick, easy to complete, and cost effective method to collect epidemiological data from recreational runners and evaluate these participants for inclusion into a genetic study.

AB - Background: Long-distance runners are prone to injuries including Achilles tendinopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome. We have developed an Internet comprehensive self-report questionnaire examining the medical history, injury history, and running habits of adult recreational runners. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate two alternative forms of test-retest reliability of a comprehensive self-report Internet questionnaire retrospectively examining the medical history, injury history, and running habits among a sample of adult recreational runners. This will contribute to the broad aims of a wider study investigating genetics and running injury. Methods: Invitations to complete an Internet questionnaire were sent by email to a convenience pilot population (test group 1). Inclusion criteria required participants to be a recreational runner age 18 or over, who ran over 15 km per week on a consistent basis. The survey questions addressed regular running habits and any injuries (including signs, symptoms, and diagnosis) of the lower limbs that resulted in discontinuation of running for a period of 2 consecutive weeks or more, within the last 2 years. Questions also addressed general health, age, sex, height, weight, and ethnic background. Participants were then asked to repeat the survey using the Internet platform again after 10-14 days. Following analysis of test group 1, we soft-launched the survey to a larger population (test group 2), through a local running club of 900 members via email platform. The same inclusion criteria applied, however, participants were asked to complete a repeat of the survey by telephone interview after 7-10 days. Selected key questions, important to clarify inclusion or exclusion from the wider genetics study, were selected to evaluate test-retest reliability. Reliability was quantified using the kappa coefficient for categorical data. Results: In response to the invitation, 28 participants accessed the survey from test group 1, 23 completed the Internet survey on the first occasion, and 20 completed the Internet retest within 10-21 days. Test-retest reliability scored moderate to almost perfect (kappa = .41 to.99) for 19/19 of the key questions analyzed. Following the invitation, 122 participants accessed the survey from test group 2, 101 completed the Internet survey on the first occasion, and 50 were randomly selected and contacted by email inviting them to repeat the survey by telephone interview. There were 33 participants that consented to the telephone interview and 30 completed the questionnaire within 7-10 days. Test-retest reliability scored moderate to almost perfect for 18/19 (kappa = .41 to.99) and slight for 1/19 of the key questions analyzed. Conclusions: We successfully developed a self-reported, retrospective questionnaire, delivered using Internet software, providing stable and reliable answers. We demonstrate that our survey provides a relatively quick, easy to complete, and cost effective method to collect epidemiological data from recreational runners and evaluate these participants for inclusion into a genetic study.

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VL - 4

JO - JMIR Research Protocols

JF - JMIR Research Protocols

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