Evaluating the Impact of Goal Setting on Improving Diet Quality in Chronic Kidney Disease

Chi H. Chan*, Marguerite Conley, Marina M. Reeves, Katrina L. Campbell, Jaimon T. Kelly

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: Improving diet quality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging due to a myriad of competing recommendations. Patient-centered goal setting can facilitate dietary behavior change; however, its role in improving diet quality in CKD has not been investigated. 

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of goal setting on improving diet quality in stages 3–4 CKD. 

Methods: Forty-one participants completed a 6-month dietitian-led telehealth (combined coaching calls and text messages) intervention as part of a larger RCT. Participants set one to two diet-related SMART goals and received weekly goal tracking text messages. Dietary intake was assessed using the Australian Eating Survey at baseline, 3, and 6 months, with diet quality determined using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). 

Results: Significant improvements in AHEI (+6.9 points; 95% CI 1.2–12.7), vegetable (+1.1 serves; 95% CI 0.0–2.3) and fiber intake (+4.2 g; 95% CI 0.2–8.2) were observed at 3 months in participants setting a fruit and/or vegetable goal, compared with those who did not. However, no significant or meaningful changes were observed at 6 months. No other goal setting strategy appeared in effect on diet intake behavior or clinical outcomes in this group of CKD participants. 

Conclusions: Patient-centered goal setting, particularly in relation to fruit and vegetable intake, as part of a telehealth coaching program, significantly improved diet quality (AHEI), vegetable and fiber intake over 3 months. More support may be required to achieve longer-term behavior change in stages 3–4 CKD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number627753
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes

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