The effects of aflatoxin B1, (0.5-25 μg ml-1) on in vitro root and shoot development in young tobacco explants were investigated. Despite an initial apparent stimulatory effect on most measured parameters at 0.5 μg ml-1 AFB1, the number of leaves, root and leaf mass per plantlet were progressively inhibited with increasing AFB1 concentration. The number of explants developing roots was reduced to 34% at the highest (25 μg ml-1) AFB1 concentration, following 3 weeks exposure to the toxin. Leaf chlorophyll content at this toxin concentration was significantly lower than that measured for control plantlets. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the absorption of AFB1 by the plantlets. Using immunocytochemical techniques, AFB1 was immunolocated predominantly in the vacuoles, the nucleus and the cytoplasm (possibly intravesicularly). The results are discussed in terms of this immunolocation within the cell.