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Weight loss and muscle loss are common in individuals living with cancer, with ≤50% experiencing involuntary weight loss at any time point in their cancer journey, and between 11% and 74% having sarcopenia or significant muscle loss. These changes in body composition are related to poor outcomes such as increased treatment toxicity, impaired quality of life, and reduced survival duration. Poor outcomes are not restricted to those who are underweight with severe weight loss; sarcopenia alone has been shown to be a prognostic marker across all body mass index categories, ranging from underweight to obesity To understand the mechanism of nutrition interventions in cancer and to develop effective future interventions, it is necessary to look at the acute effects of feeding on the response of the body and the ability to reach an anabolic response. The aim of this study was to explore and summarize the emerging evidence on metabolic effects of acute oral interventions on whole body protein kinetics and muscle protein synthesis in individuals with cancer.