Effect of Mobile Phone Text Messaging Self-Management Support for Patients With Diabetes or Coronary Heart Disease in a Chronic Disease Management Program (SupportMe) on Blood Pressure: Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial

SupportMe Investigators, Ngai Wah Cheung*, Julie Redfern, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Tien-Ming Hng, Simone Marschner, Rabbia Haider, Sonia Faruquie, Amy Von Huben, Shelley She, Daniel McIntyre, Jin-Gun Cho, Clara K Chow

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Maintaining engagement and support for patients with chronic diseases is challenging. SMS text messaging programs have complemented patient care in a variety of situations. However, such programs have not been widely translated into routine care.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the implementation and utility of a customized SMS text message-based support program for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease, or both within a chronic disease integrated care program.

METHODS: We conducted a 6-month pragmatic parallel-group, single-blind randomized controlled trial that recruited people with T2D or coronary heart disease. Intervention participants received 4 semipersonalized SMS text messages per week providing self-management support to supplement standard care. Preprogrammed algorithms customized content based on participant characteristics, and the messages were sent at random times of the day and in random order by a fully automated SMS text messaging engine. Control participants received standard care and only administrative SMS text messages. The primary outcome was systolic blood pressure. Evaluations were conducted face to face whenever possible by researchers blinded to randomization. Participants with T2D were evaluated for glycated hemoglobin level. Participant-reported experience measures were evaluated using questionnaires and focus groups and summarized using proportions and thematic analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 902 participants were randomized (n=448, 49.7% to the intervention group and n=454, 50.3% to the control group). Primary outcome data were available for 89.5% (807/902) of the participants. At 6 months, there was no difference in systolic blood pressure between the intervention and control arms (adjusted mean difference=0.9 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.1 to 2.1; P=.38). Of 642 participants with T2D, there was no difference in glycated hemoglobin (adjusted mean difference=0.1%, 95% CI -0.1% to 0.3%; P=.35). Self-reported medication adherence was better in the intervention group (relative risk=0.82, 95% CI 0.68-1.00; P=.045). Participants reported that the SMS text messages were useful (298/344, 86.6%) and easily understood (336/344, 97.7%) and motivated change (217/344, 63.1%). The lack of bidirectional messaging was identified as a barrier.

CONCLUSIONS: The intervention did not improve blood pressure in this cohort, possibly because of high clinician commitment to improved routine patient care as part of the chronic disease management program as well as favorable baseline metrics. There was high program engagement, acceptability, and perceived value. Feasibility as part of an integrated care program was demonstrated. SMS text messaging programs may supplement chronic disease management and support self-care.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616001689460; https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=371769&isReview=true.

INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025923.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere38275
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Volume25
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes

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