Effect of Early High-Flow Nasal Oxygen vs Standard Oxygen Therapy on Length of Hospital Stay in Hospitalized Children With Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure: The PARIS-2 Randomized Clinical Trial

Donna Franklin, Franz E. Babl, Shane George, Ed Oakley, Meredith L. Borland, Jocelyn Neutze, Jason Acworth, Simon Craig, Mark Jones, Brenda Gannon, Deborah Shellshear, Hamish McCay, Alexandra Wallace, Tobias Hoeppner, Mark Wildman, Joerg Mattes, Trang M.T. Pham, Letitia Miller, Amanda Williams, Sharon O'BrienShirley Lawrence, Megan Bonisch, Kristen Gibbons, Susan Moloney, John Waugh, Sue Hobbins, Simon Grew, Rose Fahy, Stuart R. Dalziel, Andreas Schibler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Importance: Nasal high-flow oxygen therapy in infants with bronchiolitis and hypoxia has been shown to reduce the requirement to escalate care. The efficacy of high-flow oxygen therapy in children aged 1 to 4 years with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure without bronchiolitis is unknown. 

Objective: To determine the effect of early high-flow oxygen therapy vs standard oxygen therapy in children with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. 

Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial was conducted at 14 metropolitan and tertiary hospitals in Australia and New Zealand, including 1567 children aged 1 to 4 years (randomized between December 18, 2017, and March 18, 2020) requiring hospital admission for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. The last participant follow-up was completed on March 22, 2020. 

Interventions: Enrolled children were randomly allocated 1:1 to high-flow oxygen therapy (n = 753) or standard oxygen therapy (n = 764). The type of oxygen therapy could not be masked, but the investigators remained blinded until the outcome data were locked. 

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was length of hospital stay with the hypothesis that high-flow oxygen therapy reduces length of stay. There were 9 secondary outcomes, including length of oxygen therapy and admission to the intensive care unit. Children were analyzed according to their randomization group. 

Results: Of the 1567 children who were randomized, 1517 (97%) were included in the primary analysis (median age, 1.9 years [IQR, 1.4-3.0 years]; 732 [46.7%] were female) and all children completed the trial. The length of hospital stay was significantly longer in the high-flow oxygen group with a median of 1.77 days (IQR, 1.03-2.80 days) vs 1.50 days (IQR, 0.85-2.44 days) in the standard oxygen group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.92]; P < .001). Of the 9 prespecified secondary outcomes, 4 showed no significant difference. The median length of oxygen therapy was 1.07 days (IQR, 0.50-2.06 days) in the high-flow oxygen group vs 0.75 days (IQR, 0.35-1.61 days) in the standard oxygen therapy group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.70-0.86]). In the high-flow oxygen group, there were 94 admissions (12.5%) to the intensive care unit compared with 53 admissions (6.9%) in the standard oxygen group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.35-2.75]). There was only 1 death and it occurred in the high-flow oxygen group. 

Conclusions and Relevance: Nasal high-flow oxygen used as the initial primary therapy in children aged 1 to 4 years with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure did not significantly reduce the length of hospital stay compared with standard oxygen therapy. 

Trial Registration: anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12618000210279.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-234
Number of pages11
JournalJAMA
Volume329
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jan 2023

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