Dynamic, invivo, real-time detection of retinal oxidative status in a model of elevated intraocular pressure using a novel, reversibly responsive, profluorescent nitroxide probe

Cassie L. Rayner, Glen A. Gole, Steven E. Bottle, Nigel L. Barnett*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


Changes to the redox status of biological systems have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders including cancer, Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and neurodegeneration. In times of metabolic stress e.g. ischaemia/reperfusion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production overwhelms the intrinsic antioxidant capacity of the cell, damaging vital cellular components. The ability to quantify ROS changes invivo, is therefore essential to understanding their biological role. Here we evaluate the suitability of a novel reversible profluorescent probe containing a redox-sensitive nitroxide moiety (methyl ester tetraethylrhodamine nitroxide, ME-TRN), as an invivo, real-time reporter of retinal oxidative status. The reversible nature of the probe's response offers the unique advantage of being able to monitor redox changes in both oxidizing and reducing directions in real time. After intravitreal administration of the ME-TRN probe, we induced ROS production in rat retina using an established model of complete, acute retinal ischaemia followed by reperfusion. After restoration of blood flow, retinas were imaged using a Micron III rodent fundus fluorescence imaging system, to quantify the redox-response of the probe. Fluorescent intensity declined during the first 60min of reperfusion. The ROS-induced change in probe fluorescence was ameliorated with the retinal antioxidant, lutein. Fluorescence intensity in non-Ischemia eyes did not change significantly. This new probe and imaging technology provide a reversible and real-time response to oxidative changes and may allow the invivo testing of antioxidant therapies of potential benefit to a range of diseases linked to oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-56
Number of pages9
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes


Cite this