The aim of this study was to determine the influence of muscular strength and power on upper body Wingate performance in men and women. Muscular strength (1 repetition maximum bench press), muscular power (bench throws) and upper body anaerobic performance (Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT)) was assessed in 24 men and 16 women. Men had significantly (P<0.001) higher absolute and relative peak and mean power and blood lactate concentration during the WAnT compared to their female counterparts. Men also produced significantly (P<0.001) higher strength and absolute and relative peak and mean power during the bench press and throw, respectively, compared to the female participants. For men body mass and mean power produced during the bench throw explained approximately 84% and 87% of the variance in Wingate peak (P<0.001 and P=0.039, respectively) and mean (P<0.001 and P=0.028, respectively) power. For women mean power produced during the bench throw explained approximately 72% and 52% of the variance in Wingate peak (P=0.002) and mean (P=0.017) power, respectively. For men body mass and to a lesser extent muscular power best predicts upper body Wingate performance while for women only muscular power predicts upper body Wingate performance.