Do multi-ingredient protein supplements augment resistance training-induced gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength?: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 35 trials

Kerry R O'Bryan, Thomas M Doering, Robert W Morton, Vernon G Coffey, Stuart M Phillips, Gregory R Cox

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of multi-ingredient protein (MIP) supplements on resistance exercise training (RT)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength compared with protein-only (PRO) or placebo supplementation.

DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials with interventions including RT ≥6 weeks in duration and a MIP supplement.

DESIGN: Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of supplementation on fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, one-repetition maximum (1RM) upper body and 1RM lower body muscular strength. Subgroup analyses compared the efficacy of MIP supplementation relative to training status and chronological age.

RESULTS: The most common MIP supplements included protein with creatine (n=17) or vitamin D (n=10). Data from 35 trials with 1387 participants showed significant (p<0.05) increases in FFM (0.80 kg (95% CI 0.44 to 1.15)), 1RM lower body (4.22 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 7.64)) and 1RM upper body (2.56 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 4.33)) where a supplement was compared with all non-MIP supplemented conditions (means (95% CI)). Subgroup analyses indicated a greater effect of MIP supplements compared with all non-MIP supplements on FFM in untrained (0.95 kg (95% CI 0.51 to 1.39), p<0.0001) and older participants (0.77 kg (95% CI 0.11 to 1.43), p=0.02); taking MIP supplements was also associated with gains in 1RM upper body (1.56 kg (95% CI 0.80 to 2.33), p=0.01) in older adults.

SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS: When MIP supplements were combined with resistance exercise training, there were greater gains in FFM and strength in healthy adults than in counterparts who were supplemented with non-MIP. MIP supplements were not superior when directly compared with PRO supplements. The magnitude of effect of MIP supplements was greater (in absolute values) in untrained and elderly individuals undertaking RT than it was in trained individuals and in younger people.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017081970.

LanguageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

Resistance Training
Muscle Strength
Meta-Analysis
Skeletal Muscle
Proteins
Fats
Exercise
Creatine
Vitamin D
MEDLINE

Cite this

@article{333fd1f79ef84276ac2d97a08af20fde,
title = "Do multi-ingredient protein supplements augment resistance training-induced gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength?: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 35 trials",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of multi-ingredient protein (MIP) supplements on resistance exercise training (RT)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength compared with protein-only (PRO) or placebo supplementation.DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus.ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials with interventions including RT ≥6 weeks in duration and a MIP supplement.DESIGN: Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of supplementation on fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, one-repetition maximum (1RM) upper body and 1RM lower body muscular strength. Subgroup analyses compared the efficacy of MIP supplementation relative to training status and chronological age.RESULTS: The most common MIP supplements included protein with creatine (n=17) or vitamin D (n=10). Data from 35 trials with 1387 participants showed significant (p<0.05) increases in FFM (0.80 kg (95{\%} CI 0.44 to 1.15)), 1RM lower body (4.22 kg (95{\%} CI 0.79 to 7.64)) and 1RM upper body (2.56 kg (95{\%} CI 0.79 to 4.33)) where a supplement was compared with all non-MIP supplemented conditions (means (95{\%} CI)). Subgroup analyses indicated a greater effect of MIP supplements compared with all non-MIP supplements on FFM in untrained (0.95 kg (95{\%} CI 0.51 to 1.39), p<0.0001) and older participants (0.77 kg (95{\%} CI 0.11 to 1.43), p=0.02); taking MIP supplements was also associated with gains in 1RM upper body (1.56 kg (95{\%} CI 0.80 to 2.33), p=0.01) in older adults.SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS: When MIP supplements were combined with resistance exercise training, there were greater gains in FFM and strength in healthy adults than in counterparts who were supplemented with non-MIP. MIP supplements were not superior when directly compared with PRO supplements. The magnitude of effect of MIP supplements was greater (in absolute values) in untrained and elderly individuals undertaking RT than it was in trained individuals and in younger people.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017081970.",
author = "O'Bryan, {Kerry R} and Doering, {Thomas M} and Morton, {Robert W} and Coffey, {Vernon G} and Phillips, {Stuart M} and Cox, {Gregory R}",
note = "{\circledC} Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1136/bjsports-2018-099889",
language = "English",
journal = "British Journal of Sports Medicine",
issn = "0306-3674",
publisher = "B M J PUBLISHING GROUP",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Do multi-ingredient protein supplements augment resistance training-induced gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength?

T2 - British Journal of Sports Medicine

AU - O'Bryan, Kerry R

AU - Doering, Thomas M

AU - Morton, Robert W

AU - Coffey, Vernon G

AU - Phillips, Stuart M

AU - Cox, Gregory R

N1 - © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

PY - 2019/3/1

Y1 - 2019/3/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of multi-ingredient protein (MIP) supplements on resistance exercise training (RT)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength compared with protein-only (PRO) or placebo supplementation.DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus.ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials with interventions including RT ≥6 weeks in duration and a MIP supplement.DESIGN: Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of supplementation on fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, one-repetition maximum (1RM) upper body and 1RM lower body muscular strength. Subgroup analyses compared the efficacy of MIP supplementation relative to training status and chronological age.RESULTS: The most common MIP supplements included protein with creatine (n=17) or vitamin D (n=10). Data from 35 trials with 1387 participants showed significant (p<0.05) increases in FFM (0.80 kg (95% CI 0.44 to 1.15)), 1RM lower body (4.22 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 7.64)) and 1RM upper body (2.56 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 4.33)) where a supplement was compared with all non-MIP supplemented conditions (means (95% CI)). Subgroup analyses indicated a greater effect of MIP supplements compared with all non-MIP supplements on FFM in untrained (0.95 kg (95% CI 0.51 to 1.39), p<0.0001) and older participants (0.77 kg (95% CI 0.11 to 1.43), p=0.02); taking MIP supplements was also associated with gains in 1RM upper body (1.56 kg (95% CI 0.80 to 2.33), p=0.01) in older adults.SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS: When MIP supplements were combined with resistance exercise training, there were greater gains in FFM and strength in healthy adults than in counterparts who were supplemented with non-MIP. MIP supplements were not superior when directly compared with PRO supplements. The magnitude of effect of MIP supplements was greater (in absolute values) in untrained and elderly individuals undertaking RT than it was in trained individuals and in younger people.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017081970.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of multi-ingredient protein (MIP) supplements on resistance exercise training (RT)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength compared with protein-only (PRO) or placebo supplementation.DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus.ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials with interventions including RT ≥6 weeks in duration and a MIP supplement.DESIGN: Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of supplementation on fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, one-repetition maximum (1RM) upper body and 1RM lower body muscular strength. Subgroup analyses compared the efficacy of MIP supplementation relative to training status and chronological age.RESULTS: The most common MIP supplements included protein with creatine (n=17) or vitamin D (n=10). Data from 35 trials with 1387 participants showed significant (p<0.05) increases in FFM (0.80 kg (95% CI 0.44 to 1.15)), 1RM lower body (4.22 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 7.64)) and 1RM upper body (2.56 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 4.33)) where a supplement was compared with all non-MIP supplemented conditions (means (95% CI)). Subgroup analyses indicated a greater effect of MIP supplements compared with all non-MIP supplements on FFM in untrained (0.95 kg (95% CI 0.51 to 1.39), p<0.0001) and older participants (0.77 kg (95% CI 0.11 to 1.43), p=0.02); taking MIP supplements was also associated with gains in 1RM upper body (1.56 kg (95% CI 0.80 to 2.33), p=0.01) in older adults.SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS: When MIP supplements were combined with resistance exercise training, there were greater gains in FFM and strength in healthy adults than in counterparts who were supplemented with non-MIP. MIP supplements were not superior when directly compared with PRO supplements. The magnitude of effect of MIP supplements was greater (in absolute values) in untrained and elderly individuals undertaking RT than it was in trained individuals and in younger people.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017081970.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062331418&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1136/bjsports-2018-099889

DO - 10.1136/bjsports-2018-099889

M3 - Review article

JO - British Journal of Sports Medicine

JF - British Journal of Sports Medicine

SN - 0306-3674

ER -