Background: To investigate the relationship between hormone therapy (HT) and incidence of anxiety and depression among prostate cancer patients (PCa). Methods: 526 PCa patients completed a survey about their cancer status, treatment received, anxiety, and depression status. Total scores on anxiety and depression inventories, plus symptom profiles that discriminated between patients with current HT, past HT, and never having received HT, were compiled for analysis. Results: Patients who were currently receiving HT had significantly higher total anxiety and depression scores than patients who had previously received HT or who had never received HT. Analysis of the symptoms of anxiety and depression which distinguished between these groups of patients suggested that patients who had never received HT had significantly lower scores than current or past HT patients. Although several symptoms could be directly allocated to PCa and/or HT, symptom profiles were indicative of clinically significant anxiety and/or depression in patients who were currently receiving, or who had previously received, HT. Conclusion: Current HT may lead to symptoms of anxiety and/or depression which require clinical attention. These effects seem to decrease after completion of HT.