Diffusion of building information modeling in building projects and firms in Singapore

Longhui Liao*, Evelyn Ai Lin Teo, Ruidong Chang, Xianbo Zhao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Building information modeling (BIM) implementation has been mandated in building projects in Singapore, but a wider adoption is still desired. This study aims to investigate the factors influencing BIM diffusion and examine how the factors influence firms with different project roles, firm sizes, and BIM implementation experience. The results of a pilot study, a questionnaire survey with 89 professionals, and five post-survey interviews showed that hindrances related to inadequate multi-party collaboration (whether formal or informal), conservative mindset, limited skills, costly infrastructure and training, and multi-discipline model integration were the most influential, whereas drivers associated with project leadership team's strategic consensus, multi-disciplinary design coordination, training, and government regulations were top-ranked. Subgroup analyses between pairs of firms with different characteristics revealed that while construction firms and less experienced stakeholders tended to underestimate BIM implementation difficulties, small-medium contractors might underestimate relevant benefits. The findings and managerial recommendations help different types of firms prioritize resources to overcome hindrances, seize opportunities (such as gaining a competitive edge from BIM practical experience), and obtain support from workers executing BIM daily. With major stakeholders' recognition and implementation, BIM can be successfully diffused in building projects and firms. The Singapore government and other countries can refer to this study when further issuing BIM diffusion policies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7762
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020
Externally publishedYes


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