Differences and relationships between push-up and sit-up variations among male law enforcement cadets

Marcel Lopes Dos Santos, Megan Thompson, Taylor Dinyer-McNeely, Troy Torrence, Robert G. Lockie, Rob Marc Orr, Jay Dawes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


The purpose of this study was to explore variation-dependent differences in push-up and sit-up tests, as well as to identify the relationships between push-up and sit-up variations commonly performed among tactical personnel. Data from 41 (age5 21.1 6 1.8 years, body mass 5 89.5 6 15.5 kg) male police cadets from one US-based training academy who performed the standard push-up (PU Standard), hand-release push-up (PUH and-release), standard sit-up (SU Standard), and hands behind the head situp (SUBehindHead) were examined. The maximum number of repetitions completed for each exercise was used for analyses with paired-samples t tests used to identify significant differences between outcome measures and effect sizes (ES) to determine change in magnitude. A significant difference, with a large ES, was found in the number of repetitions completed between the pushup variations (p,0.001, ES50.75) and sit-up variations (p,0.001, ES51.02). Performance in PU Standard was only able to explain39% of the variation in PU Hand-release (r 5 0.62, r2 5 0.39, p , 0.001), and performance in the SU Standard was only able to explain29% of the variation in SU BehindHead (r 5 0.54, r2 5 0.29, p , 0.001). The current study suggests differences in performance capabilities may be dependent on the push-up and sit-up variations chosen for testing. Although it is still unclear whether one variation would be a better predictor of police work performance, agencies must give special attention to the overall construct validity of fitness tests for entry and retention of law enforcement officers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1865-1869
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Issue number9
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023


Dive into the research topics of 'Differences and relationships between push-up and sit-up variations among male law enforcement cadets'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this