Dietary protein-fiber ratio associates with circulating levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease patients

M Rossi, D W Johnson, H Xu, J J Carrero, E Pascoe, C French, K L Campbell

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney disease (CKD).

METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 40 CKD participants (60% male; age 69 ± 10 years; 45% diabetic) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 24 ± 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of synbiotic therapy. Total and free serum IS and PCS were measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake was measured using in-depth diet histories collected by a dietitian. Associations between each toxin, dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), dietary protein (total, and amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and the protein-fiber index (ratio of protein to fiber) were assessed using linear regression. Dietary fiber was associated with free and total serum PCS (r = -0.42 and r = -0.44, both p < 0.01), but not IS. No significant association was observed between dietary protein and either toxin. The protein-fiber index was associated with total serum IS (r = 0.40, p = 0.012) and PCS (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), independent of eGFR, sex and diabetes.

CONCLUSION: Dietary protein-fiber index is associated with serum IS and PCS levels. Such association, beyond fiber and protein alone, highlights the importance of the interplay between these nutrients. We speculate that dietary modification towards a lower protein-fiber index may contribute to lowering IS and PCS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)860-865
Number of pages6
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume25
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2015
Externally publishedYes

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Indican
Dietary Proteins
Dietary Fiber
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Sulfates
Proteins
Serum
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Fermentation
Synbiotics
Diet Therapy
Bacterial Proteins
Nutritionists
Phenylalanine
Tryptophan
Liquid Chromatography
Tyrosine
Linear Models
Randomized Controlled Trials
Cross-Sectional Studies

Cite this

@article{34a5a41ab5ec4f2abad4f76f88089f3f,
title = "Dietary protein-fiber ratio associates with circulating levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease patients",
abstract = "BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney disease (CKD).METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 40 CKD participants (60{\%} male; age 69 ± 10 years; 45{\%} diabetic) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 24 ± 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of synbiotic therapy. Total and free serum IS and PCS were measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake was measured using in-depth diet histories collected by a dietitian. Associations between each toxin, dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), dietary protein (total, and amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and the protein-fiber index (ratio of protein to fiber) were assessed using linear regression. Dietary fiber was associated with free and total serum PCS (r = -0.42 and r = -0.44, both p < 0.01), but not IS. No significant association was observed between dietary protein and either toxin. The protein-fiber index was associated with total serum IS (r = 0.40, p = 0.012) and PCS (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), independent of eGFR, sex and diabetes.CONCLUSION: Dietary protein-fiber index is associated with serum IS and PCS levels. Such association, beyond fiber and protein alone, highlights the importance of the interplay between these nutrients. We speculate that dietary modification towards a lower protein-fiber index may contribute to lowering IS and PCS.",
author = "M Rossi and Johnson, {D W} and H Xu and Carrero, {J J} and E Pascoe and C French and Campbell, {K L}",
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Dietary protein-fiber ratio associates with circulating levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease patients. / Rossi, M; Johnson, D W; Xu, H; Carrero, J J; Pascoe, E; French, C; Campbell, K L.

In: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 25, No. 9, 09.2015, p. 860-865.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary protein-fiber ratio associates with circulating levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease patients

AU - Rossi, M

AU - Johnson, D W

AU - Xu, H

AU - Carrero, J J

AU - Pascoe, E

AU - French, C

AU - Campbell, K L

N1 - Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PY - 2015/9

Y1 - 2015/9

N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney disease (CKD).METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 40 CKD participants (60% male; age 69 ± 10 years; 45% diabetic) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 24 ± 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of synbiotic therapy. Total and free serum IS and PCS were measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake was measured using in-depth diet histories collected by a dietitian. Associations between each toxin, dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), dietary protein (total, and amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and the protein-fiber index (ratio of protein to fiber) were assessed using linear regression. Dietary fiber was associated with free and total serum PCS (r = -0.42 and r = -0.44, both p < 0.01), but not IS. No significant association was observed between dietary protein and either toxin. The protein-fiber index was associated with total serum IS (r = 0.40, p = 0.012) and PCS (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), independent of eGFR, sex and diabetes.CONCLUSION: Dietary protein-fiber index is associated with serum IS and PCS levels. Such association, beyond fiber and protein alone, highlights the importance of the interplay between these nutrients. We speculate that dietary modification towards a lower protein-fiber index may contribute to lowering IS and PCS.

AB - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney disease (CKD).METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 40 CKD participants (60% male; age 69 ± 10 years; 45% diabetic) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 24 ± 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of synbiotic therapy. Total and free serum IS and PCS were measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake was measured using in-depth diet histories collected by a dietitian. Associations between each toxin, dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), dietary protein (total, and amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and the protein-fiber index (ratio of protein to fiber) were assessed using linear regression. Dietary fiber was associated with free and total serum PCS (r = -0.42 and r = -0.44, both p < 0.01), but not IS. No significant association was observed between dietary protein and either toxin. The protein-fiber index was associated with total serum IS (r = 0.40, p = 0.012) and PCS (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), independent of eGFR, sex and diabetes.CONCLUSION: Dietary protein-fiber index is associated with serum IS and PCS levels. Such association, beyond fiber and protein alone, highlights the importance of the interplay between these nutrients. We speculate that dietary modification towards a lower protein-fiber index may contribute to lowering IS and PCS.

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DO - 10.1016/j.numecd.2015.03.015

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JO - Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

JF - Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

SN - 0939-4753

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