Dietary phosphate modification is a common therapy to treat hyperphosphatemia in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, current dietary intake and common food sources of phosphate typically consumed by individuals with CKD are not well characterized. This study examined a cohort of CKD patients to determine total dietary intake and common food sources of phosphate, including phosphate additives.
DESIGN AND METHODS:
Participants with CKD stages 3b and 4 recruited to a substudy of the "IMPROVE-CKD (IMpact of Phosphate Reduction On Vascular End-points in Chronic Kidney Disease) Study" completed a 7-day self-administered diet record at baseline. Diet histories were analyzed and daily phosphate intakes determined using FoodWorks V.9 (Xyris). The proportion of phosphate contributed by each food group was determined using the AUSNUT 2011-2013 Food Classification System. Ingredient lists of packaged food items consumed were reviewed to determine frequency of phosphate-based additives.
Ninety participants (mean eGFR 26.5 mL/min/1.73 m2) completed this substudy. Mean phosphate intake of participants was 1544 ± 347 mg/day, with 96% of individuals exceeding the recommended daily intake of phosphate (1000 mg/day). The highest sources of dietary phosphate were milk-based products (25%) and meat and poultry products/dishes (25%). Phosphate-based food additives were identified in 39% (n = 331/845) of packaged foods consumed by participants.
Dietary phosphate intakes of Australians with CKD are high and come from a variety of sources. Managing dietary phosphate intake requires a patient-centered, tailored approach with an emphasis on maintaining nutritional adequacy and awareness of phosphate additives.