Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Daniel So, Kevin Whelan, Megan Rossi, Mark Morrison, Gerald Holtmann, Jaimon T. Kelly, Erin R. Shanahan, Heidi M. Staudacher, Katrina L. Campbell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota, and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Design A systematic search was conducted across MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials using culture and/or molecular microbiological techniques evaluating the effect of fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Meta-analyses via a random-effects model were performed on alpha diversity, prespecified bacterial abundances including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp., and fecal SCFA concentrations comparing dietary fiber interventions with placebo/low-fiber comparators. Results A total of 64 studies involving 2099 participants were included. Dietary fiber intervention resulted in higher abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. (standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.86; P < 0.00001) and Lactobacillus spp. (SMD: 0.22; 0.03, 0.41; P = 0.02) as well as fecal butyrate concentration (SMD: 0.24; 0.00, 0.47; P = 0.05) compared with placebo/low-fiber comparators. Subgroup analysis revealed that fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides led to significantly greater abundance of both Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. compared with comparators (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.002, respectively). No differences in effect were found between fiber intervention and comparators for α-diversity, abundances of other prespecified bacteria, or other SCFA concentrations. Conclusions Dietary fiber intervention, particularly involving fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides, leads to higher fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. but does not affect α-diversity. Further research is required to better understand the role of individual fiber types on the growth of microbes and the overall gut microbial community.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)965-983
Number of pages19
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume107
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018

Fingerprint

Dietary Fiber
Bifidobacterium
Meta-Analysis
Lactobacillus
Volatile Fatty Acids
Fructans
Oligosaccharides
Placebos
Microbiological Techniques
Butyrates
MEDLINE
Chronic Disease
Randomized Controlled Trials
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Diet
Bacteria
Growth
Research

Cite this

So, Daniel ; Whelan, Kevin ; Rossi, Megan ; Morrison, Mark ; Holtmann, Gerald ; Kelly, Jaimon T. ; Shanahan, Erin R. ; Staudacher, Heidi M. ; Campbell, Katrina L. / Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults : A systematic review and meta-analysis. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2018 ; Vol. 107, No. 6. pp. 965-983.
@article{d616dc418c5642ddb43f8ba8758f2f6d,
title = "Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis",
abstract = "Background Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota, and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Design A systematic search was conducted across MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials using culture and/or molecular microbiological techniques evaluating the effect of fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Meta-analyses via a random-effects model were performed on alpha diversity, prespecified bacterial abundances including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp., and fecal SCFA concentrations comparing dietary fiber interventions with placebo/low-fiber comparators. Results A total of 64 studies involving 2099 participants were included. Dietary fiber intervention resulted in higher abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. (standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.64; 95{\%} CI: 0.42, 0.86; P < 0.00001) and Lactobacillus spp. (SMD: 0.22; 0.03, 0.41; P = 0.02) as well as fecal butyrate concentration (SMD: 0.24; 0.00, 0.47; P = 0.05) compared with placebo/low-fiber comparators. Subgroup analysis revealed that fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides led to significantly greater abundance of both Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. compared with comparators (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.002, respectively). No differences in effect were found between fiber intervention and comparators for α-diversity, abundances of other prespecified bacteria, or other SCFA concentrations. Conclusions Dietary fiber intervention, particularly involving fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides, leads to higher fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. but does not affect α-diversity. Further research is required to better understand the role of individual fiber types on the growth of microbes and the overall gut microbial community.",
author = "Daniel So and Kevin Whelan and Megan Rossi and Mark Morrison and Gerald Holtmann and Kelly, {Jaimon T.} and Shanahan, {Erin R.} and Staudacher, {Heidi M.} and Campbell, {Katrina L.}",
year = "2018",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/ajcn/nqy041",
language = "English",
volume = "107",
pages = "965--983",
journal = "The Journal of clinical nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "6",

}

So, D, Whelan, K, Rossi, M, Morrison, M, Holtmann, G, Kelly, JT, Shanahan, ER, Staudacher, HM & Campbell, KL 2018, 'Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis' American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 965-983. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy041

Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults : A systematic review and meta-analysis. / So, Daniel; Whelan, Kevin; Rossi, Megan; Morrison, Mark; Holtmann, Gerald; Kelly, Jaimon T.; Shanahan, Erin R.; Staudacher, Heidi M.; Campbell, Katrina L.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 107, No. 6, 01.06.2018, p. 965-983.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults

T2 - A systematic review and meta-analysis

AU - So, Daniel

AU - Whelan, Kevin

AU - Rossi, Megan

AU - Morrison, Mark

AU - Holtmann, Gerald

AU - Kelly, Jaimon T.

AU - Shanahan, Erin R.

AU - Staudacher, Heidi M.

AU - Campbell, Katrina L.

PY - 2018/6/1

Y1 - 2018/6/1

N2 - Background Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota, and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Design A systematic search was conducted across MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials using culture and/or molecular microbiological techniques evaluating the effect of fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Meta-analyses via a random-effects model were performed on alpha diversity, prespecified bacterial abundances including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp., and fecal SCFA concentrations comparing dietary fiber interventions with placebo/low-fiber comparators. Results A total of 64 studies involving 2099 participants were included. Dietary fiber intervention resulted in higher abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. (standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.86; P < 0.00001) and Lactobacillus spp. (SMD: 0.22; 0.03, 0.41; P = 0.02) as well as fecal butyrate concentration (SMD: 0.24; 0.00, 0.47; P = 0.05) compared with placebo/low-fiber comparators. Subgroup analysis revealed that fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides led to significantly greater abundance of both Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. compared with comparators (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.002, respectively). No differences in effect were found between fiber intervention and comparators for α-diversity, abundances of other prespecified bacteria, or other SCFA concentrations. Conclusions Dietary fiber intervention, particularly involving fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides, leads to higher fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. but does not affect α-diversity. Further research is required to better understand the role of individual fiber types on the growth of microbes and the overall gut microbial community.

AB - Background Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota, and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Design A systematic search was conducted across MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials using culture and/or molecular microbiological techniques evaluating the effect of fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults. Meta-analyses via a random-effects model were performed on alpha diversity, prespecified bacterial abundances including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp., and fecal SCFA concentrations comparing dietary fiber interventions with placebo/low-fiber comparators. Results A total of 64 studies involving 2099 participants were included. Dietary fiber intervention resulted in higher abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. (standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.86; P < 0.00001) and Lactobacillus spp. (SMD: 0.22; 0.03, 0.41; P = 0.02) as well as fecal butyrate concentration (SMD: 0.24; 0.00, 0.47; P = 0.05) compared with placebo/low-fiber comparators. Subgroup analysis revealed that fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides led to significantly greater abundance of both Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. compared with comparators (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.002, respectively). No differences in effect were found between fiber intervention and comparators for α-diversity, abundances of other prespecified bacteria, or other SCFA concentrations. Conclusions Dietary fiber intervention, particularly involving fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides, leads to higher fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. but does not affect α-diversity. Further research is required to better understand the role of individual fiber types on the growth of microbes and the overall gut microbial community.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85048669576&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/ajcn/nqy041

DO - 10.1093/ajcn/nqy041

M3 - Article

VL - 107

SP - 965

EP - 983

JO - The Journal of clinical nutrition

JF - The Journal of clinical nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 6

ER -