Development of a patient decision aid for children and adolescents following anterior cruciate ligament rupture: an international mixed-methods study

Andrew R Gamble, Marnee J McKay, David B Anderson, Evangelos Pappas, Ignatius Alvarez Cooper, Sophie Macpherson, Ian A Harris, Stephanie R Filbay, Kirsten McCaffery, Rachel Thompson, Tammy C Hoffmann, Christopher G Maher, Joshua R Zadro

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Abstract

AIM: To develop and user test an evidence-based patient decision aid for children and adolescents who are considering anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

DESIGN: Mixed-methods study describing the development of a patient decision aid.

SETTING: A draft decision aid was developed by a multidisciplinary steering group (including various types of health professionals and researchers, and consumers) informed by the best available evidence and existing patient decision aids.

PARTICIPANTS: People who ruptured their ACL when they were under 18 years old (ie, adolescents), their parents, and health professionals who manage these patients. Participants were recruited through social media and the network outreach of the steering group.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Semistructured interviews and questionnaires were used to gather feedback on the decision aid. The feedback was used to refine the decision aid and assess acceptability. An iterative cycle of interviews, refining the aid according to feedback and further interviews, was used. Interviews were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis.

RESULTS: We conducted 32 interviews; 16 health professionals (12 physiotherapists, 4 orthopaedic surgeons) and 16 people who ruptured their ACL when they were under 18 years old (7 were adolescents and 9 were adults at the time of the interview). Parents participated in 8 interviews. Most health professionals, patients and parents rated the aid's acceptability as good-to-excellent. Health professionals and patients agreed on most aspects of the decision aid, but some health professionals had differing views on non-surgical management, risk of harms, treatment protocols and evidence on benefits and harms.

CONCLUSION: Our patient decision aid is an acceptable tool to help children and adolescents choose an appropriate management option following ACL rupture with their parents and health professionals. A clinical trial evaluating the potential benefit of this tool for children and adolescents considering ACL reconstruction is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere081421
Pages (from-to)e081421
Number of pages12
JournalBMJ Open
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Apr 2024

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