Development and Validation of The Transcendent Beliefs Scale (TBS): A 12 Item Assessment of Self-Transcendent States

Peta Berenice Stapleton, Dawson Church, Andrew Newberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Objective:
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Transcendent Beliefs Scale (TBS). We defined transcendent experiences as an experience of unity with others and the whole of existence, which is associated with behavioural, cognitive, emotional, and transcendental factors. Our aim was to develop a very brief instrument that accurately reflected the phenomenology of transcendent states.
Method:
The factor structure, validity, and reliability of the TBS were assessed across a sample of university students and energy therapy practitioners (N=305).
Results:
With respect to convergent validity, we found that transcendent experiences were positively correlated with daily spiritual experiences, trait hope, and meaning in life. Discriminant validity was demonstrated through a negative weak relationship to narcissistic personality traits. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the scale to 12 items and a two-factor model was found to fit the data.
Conclusion:
The results indicate that the TBS is a valid and reliable scale to measure transcendent beliefs in the general population. It is suitable for research projects in which a brief measure of transcendence is required.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Journal Energy Psychology: theory, research, practice, training
Volume15
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2023

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