D-Dimer Predicts Long-Term Cause-Specific Mortality, Cardiovascular Events, and Cancer in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease: LIPID Study

LIPID Study Investigators

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14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: D-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin, is a marker for hypercoagulability and thrombotic events. Moderately elevated levels of D-dimer are associated with the risk of venous and arterial events in patients with vascular disease. We assessed the role of D-dimer levels in predicting long-term vascular outcomes, cause-specific mortality, and new cancers in the LIPID trial (Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease) in the context of other risk factors. METHODS: LIPID randomized patients to placebo or pravastatin 40 mg/d 5 to 38 months after myocardial infarction or unstable angina. D-dimer levels were measured at baseline and at 1 year. Median follow-up was 6.0 years during the trial and 16 years in total. RESULTS: Baseline D-dimer levels for 7863 patients were grouped by quartile (≤112, 112–173, 173–273, >273 ng/mL). Higher levels were associated with older age, female sex, history of hypertension, poor renal function, and elevated levels of B-natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and sensitive troponin I (each P<0.001). During the first 6 years, after adjustment for up to 30 additional risk factors, higher D-dimer was associated with a significantly increased risk of a major coronary event (quartile 4 versus 1: hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.74), major cardiovascular disease (CVD) event (HR, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–1.71) and venous thromboembolism (HR, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.31–7.03; each P<0.001). During the 16 years overall, higher D-dimer was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.59), CVD mortality (HR, 1.61), cancer mortality (HR, 1.54), and non-CVD noncancer mortality (HR, 1.57; each P<0.001), remaining significant for deaths resulting from each cause occurring beyond 10 years of follow-up (each P≤0.01). Higher D-dimer also independently predicted an increase in cancer incidence (HR, 1.16; P=0.02).The D-dimer level increased the net reclassification index for all-cause mortality by 4.0 and venous thromboembolism by 13.6. CONCLUSIONS: D-dimer levels predict long-term risk of arterial and venous events, CVD mortality, and non-CVD noncancer mortality independent of other risk factors. D-dimer is also a significant predictor of cancer incidence and mortality. These results support an association of D-dimer with fatal events across multiple diseases and demonstrate that this link extends beyond 10 years’ follow-up.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)712-723
Number of pages12
JournalCirculation
Volume138
Issue number7
Early online date24 Jan 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Aug 2018

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Coronary Disease
Mortality
Neoplasms
Pravastatin
Cardiovascular Diseases
Venous Thromboembolism
Confidence Intervals
fibrin fragment D
Natriuretic Peptides
Renal Hypertension
Troponin I
Thrombophilia
Incidence
Unstable Angina
Fibrin
Vascular Diseases
C-Reactive Protein
Blood Vessels
Myocardial Infarction
Placebos

Cite this

@article{5edfe8296e0149b3bdf5a4a48bdf8721,
title = "D-Dimer Predicts Long-Term Cause-Specific Mortality, Cardiovascular Events, and Cancer in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease: LIPID Study",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: D-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin, is a marker for hypercoagulability and thrombotic events. Moderately elevated levels of D-dimer are associated with the risk of venous and arterial events in patients with vascular disease. We assessed the role of D-dimer levels in predicting long-term vascular outcomes, cause-specific mortality, and new cancers in the LIPID trial (Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease) in the context of other risk factors. METHODS: LIPID randomized patients to placebo or pravastatin 40 mg/d 5 to 38 months after myocardial infarction or unstable angina. D-dimer levels were measured at baseline and at 1 year. Median follow-up was 6.0 years during the trial and 16 years in total. RESULTS: Baseline D-dimer levels for 7863 patients were grouped by quartile (≤112, 112–173, 173–273, >273 ng/mL). Higher levels were associated with older age, female sex, history of hypertension, poor renal function, and elevated levels of B-natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and sensitive troponin I (each P<0.001). During the first 6 years, after adjustment for up to 30 additional risk factors, higher D-dimer was associated with a significantly increased risk of a major coronary event (quartile 4 versus 1: hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95{\%} confidence interval, 1.21–1.74), major cardiovascular disease (CVD) event (HR, 1.45; 95{\%} confidence interval, 1.23–1.71) and venous thromboembolism (HR, 4.03; 95{\%} confidence interval, 2.31–7.03; each P<0.001). During the 16 years overall, higher D-dimer was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.59), CVD mortality (HR, 1.61), cancer mortality (HR, 1.54), and non-CVD noncancer mortality (HR, 1.57; each P<0.001), remaining significant for deaths resulting from each cause occurring beyond 10 years of follow-up (each P≤0.01). Higher D-dimer also independently predicted an increase in cancer incidence (HR, 1.16; P=0.02).The D-dimer level increased the net reclassification index for all-cause mortality by 4.0 and venous thromboembolism by 13.6. CONCLUSIONS: D-dimer levels predict long-term risk of arterial and venous events, CVD mortality, and non-CVD noncancer mortality independent of other risk factors. D-dimer is also a significant predictor of cancer incidence and mortality. These results support an association of D-dimer with fatal events across multiple diseases and demonstrate that this link extends beyond 10 years’ follow-up.",
author = "{LIPID Study Investigators} and John Simes and Robledo, {Kristy P} and White, {Harvey D} and David Espinoza and Stewart, {Ralph A} and Sullivan, {David R} and Tanja Zeller and Wendy Hague and Nestel, {Paul J} and Glasziou, {Paul P} and Keech, {Anthony C} and John Elliott and Stefan Blankenberg and Tonkin, {Andrew M}",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.029901",
language = "English",
volume = "138",
pages = "712--723",
journal = "Circulation",
issn = "0009-7322",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams & Wilkins",
number = "7",

}

D-Dimer Predicts Long-Term Cause-Specific Mortality, Cardiovascular Events, and Cancer in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease : LIPID Study. / LIPID Study Investigators.

In: Circulation, Vol. 138, No. 7, 14.08.2018, p. 712-723.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - D-Dimer Predicts Long-Term Cause-Specific Mortality, Cardiovascular Events, and Cancer in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease

T2 - LIPID Study

AU - LIPID Study Investigators

AU - Simes, John

AU - Robledo, Kristy P

AU - White, Harvey D

AU - Espinoza, David

AU - Stewart, Ralph A

AU - Sullivan, David R

AU - Zeller, Tanja

AU - Hague, Wendy

AU - Nestel, Paul J

AU - Glasziou, Paul P

AU - Keech, Anthony C

AU - Elliott, John

AU - Blankenberg, Stefan

AU - Tonkin, Andrew M

PY - 2018/8/14

Y1 - 2018/8/14

N2 - BACKGROUND: D-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin, is a marker for hypercoagulability and thrombotic events. Moderately elevated levels of D-dimer are associated with the risk of venous and arterial events in patients with vascular disease. We assessed the role of D-dimer levels in predicting long-term vascular outcomes, cause-specific mortality, and new cancers in the LIPID trial (Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease) in the context of other risk factors. METHODS: LIPID randomized patients to placebo or pravastatin 40 mg/d 5 to 38 months after myocardial infarction or unstable angina. D-dimer levels were measured at baseline and at 1 year. Median follow-up was 6.0 years during the trial and 16 years in total. RESULTS: Baseline D-dimer levels for 7863 patients were grouped by quartile (≤112, 112–173, 173–273, >273 ng/mL). Higher levels were associated with older age, female sex, history of hypertension, poor renal function, and elevated levels of B-natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and sensitive troponin I (each P<0.001). During the first 6 years, after adjustment for up to 30 additional risk factors, higher D-dimer was associated with a significantly increased risk of a major coronary event (quartile 4 versus 1: hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.74), major cardiovascular disease (CVD) event (HR, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–1.71) and venous thromboembolism (HR, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.31–7.03; each P<0.001). During the 16 years overall, higher D-dimer was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.59), CVD mortality (HR, 1.61), cancer mortality (HR, 1.54), and non-CVD noncancer mortality (HR, 1.57; each P<0.001), remaining significant for deaths resulting from each cause occurring beyond 10 years of follow-up (each P≤0.01). Higher D-dimer also independently predicted an increase in cancer incidence (HR, 1.16; P=0.02).The D-dimer level increased the net reclassification index for all-cause mortality by 4.0 and venous thromboembolism by 13.6. CONCLUSIONS: D-dimer levels predict long-term risk of arterial and venous events, CVD mortality, and non-CVD noncancer mortality independent of other risk factors. D-dimer is also a significant predictor of cancer incidence and mortality. These results support an association of D-dimer with fatal events across multiple diseases and demonstrate that this link extends beyond 10 years’ follow-up.

AB - BACKGROUND: D-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin, is a marker for hypercoagulability and thrombotic events. Moderately elevated levels of D-dimer are associated with the risk of venous and arterial events in patients with vascular disease. We assessed the role of D-dimer levels in predicting long-term vascular outcomes, cause-specific mortality, and new cancers in the LIPID trial (Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease) in the context of other risk factors. METHODS: LIPID randomized patients to placebo or pravastatin 40 mg/d 5 to 38 months after myocardial infarction or unstable angina. D-dimer levels were measured at baseline and at 1 year. Median follow-up was 6.0 years during the trial and 16 years in total. RESULTS: Baseline D-dimer levels for 7863 patients were grouped by quartile (≤112, 112–173, 173–273, >273 ng/mL). Higher levels were associated with older age, female sex, history of hypertension, poor renal function, and elevated levels of B-natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and sensitive troponin I (each P<0.001). During the first 6 years, after adjustment for up to 30 additional risk factors, higher D-dimer was associated with a significantly increased risk of a major coronary event (quartile 4 versus 1: hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.74), major cardiovascular disease (CVD) event (HR, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–1.71) and venous thromboembolism (HR, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.31–7.03; each P<0.001). During the 16 years overall, higher D-dimer was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.59), CVD mortality (HR, 1.61), cancer mortality (HR, 1.54), and non-CVD noncancer mortality (HR, 1.57; each P<0.001), remaining significant for deaths resulting from each cause occurring beyond 10 years of follow-up (each P≤0.01). Higher D-dimer also independently predicted an increase in cancer incidence (HR, 1.16; P=0.02).The D-dimer level increased the net reclassification index for all-cause mortality by 4.0 and venous thromboembolism by 13.6. CONCLUSIONS: D-dimer levels predict long-term risk of arterial and venous events, CVD mortality, and non-CVD noncancer mortality independent of other risk factors. D-dimer is also a significant predictor of cancer incidence and mortality. These results support an association of D-dimer with fatal events across multiple diseases and demonstrate that this link extends beyond 10 years’ follow-up.

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U2 - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.029901

DO - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.029901

M3 - Article

VL - 138

SP - 712

EP - 723

JO - Circulation

JF - Circulation

SN - 0009-7322

IS - 7

ER -