This article reviews recent research progress and identifies future research needs relevant to two somewhat different constituencies in HRM: the HR executive, and the operating level HR manager. Issues primarily of concern to the former include attuning HR policies to the organization's strategy, managing human resources in an international context, dealing with mergers and acquisitions, and downsizing. Researchers have just begun to explore these critical problems, and much remains to be done. Daily issues of more concern to operating level HR practitioners include selection, training, compensation, and performance appraisal. These topics have been much more thoroughly researched, though existing knowledge is not being applied as well as it could be.