Contractile elements and their sympathetic regulations in the pig urinary bladder: a species and regional comparative study

Retsu Mitsui*, Ken Lee, Aoi Uchiyama, Shunta Hayakawa, Fumio Kinoshita, Shunichi Kajioka, Masatoshi Eto, Hikaru Hashitani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Contractile behaviour of the urinary bladder and its sympathetic inhibition during storage phases are not well understood. Here, we explore muscularis mucosae (MM) as a predominant mucosal contractile element and the capability of sympathetic nerves to relax detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) or MM. Distribution of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-immunoreactive cells was compared in pig, human, guinea pig, rat and mouse bladders by immunohistochemistry, while contractility of the bladder mucosa was compared in these species by isometric tension recordings. In pig, human and guinea pig bladders, DSM and MM located in the lamina propria expressed α-SMA immunoreactivity, while both rat and mouse bladders lacked a MM. Consistent with this presence or absence of MM, bladder mucosa of pig, human and guinea pig but not rat and mouse developed spontaneous phasic contractions (SPCs). Distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive sympathetic nerve fibres was compared in pig DSM, MM, trigone and urethra, as were their sympathetic nerve-evoked contractile/relaxing responses examined. In pig DSM or MM, where TH-immunoreactive sympathetic fibres exclusively projected to the vasculature, sympathetic relaxations were difficult to demonstrate. In contrast, sympathetic contractions were invariably evoked in pig trigone and urethra where the smooth muscle cells receive TH-immunoreactive sympathetic innervations. Thus, SPCs of bladder mucosa appear to predominantly arise from the MM displaying species differences. Despite the currently accepted concept of sympathetic nerve-mediated DSM relaxation during the storage phase, it is unlikely that neurally released noradrenaline acts on β-adrenoceptors to relax either DSM or MM due to the anatomical lack of sympathetic innervation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-387
Number of pages15
JournalCell and Tissue Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020
Externally publishedYes


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