Chest radiographs for acute lower respiratory tract infections

Amy Millicent Cao, Joleen P. Choy, Lakshmi Narayana Mohanakrishnan, Roger F. Bain, Mieke L. van Driel

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Abstract

Acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) (e.g. pneumonia) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and management focuses on early treatment. Chest radiographs (X-rays) are one of the commonly used strategies. Although radiological facilities are easily accessible in high-income countries, access can be limited in low-income countries. The efficacy of chest radiographs as a tool in the management of acute LRTIs has not been determined. Although chest radiographs are used for both diagnosis and management, our review focuses only on management. To assess the effectiveness of chest radiographs in addition to clinical judgement, compared to clinical judgement alone, in the management of acute LRTIs in children and adults. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 1; MEDLINE (1948 to January week 4, 2013); EMBASE (1974 to February 2013); CINAHL (1985 to February 2013) and LILACS (1985 to February 2013). We also searched NHS EED, DARE, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP (up to February 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of chest radiographs versus no chest radiographs in acute LRTIs in children and adults. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third review author compiled the findings and any discrepancies were discussed among all review authors. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two RCTs involving 2024 patients (1502 adults and 522 children) were included in this review. Both RCTs excluded patients with suspected severe disease. It was not possible to pool the results due to incomplete data. Both included trials concluded that the use of chest radiographs did not result in a better clinical outcome (duration of illness and of symptoms) for patients with acute LRTIs. In the study involving children in South Africa, the median time to recovery was seven days (95% confidence interval (CI) six to eight days (radiograph group) and six to nine days (control group)), P value = 0.50, log-rank test) and the hazard ratio for recovery was 1.08 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.34). In the study with adult participants in the USA, the average duration of illness was 16.9 days versus 17.0 days (P value > 0.05) in the radiograph and no radiograph groups respectively. This result was not statistically significant and there were no significant differences in patient outcomes between the groups with or without chest radiograph.The study in adults also reports that chest radiographs did not affect the frequencies with which clinicians ordered return visits or antibiotics. However, there was a benefit of chest radiographs in a subgroup of the adult participants with an infiltrate on their radiograph, with a reduction in length of illness (16.2 days in the group allocated to chest radiographs and 22.6 in the non-chest radiograph group, P < 0.05), duration of cough (14.2 versus 21.3 days, P < 0.05) and duration of sputum production (8.5 versus 17.8 days, P < 0.05). The authors mention that this difference in outcome between the intervention and control group in this particular subgroup only was probably a result of "the higher proportion of patients treated with antibiotics when the radiograph was used in patient care".Hospitalisation rates were only reported in the study involving children and it was found that a higher proportion of patients in the radiograph group (4.7%) required hospitalisation compared to the control group (2.3%) with the result not being statistically significant (P = 0.14). None of the trials report the effect on mortality, complications of infection or adverse events from chest radiographs. Overall, the included studies had a low or unclear risk for blinding, attrition bias and reporting bias, but a high risk of selection bias. Both trials had strict exclusion criteria which is important but may limit the clinical practicability of the results as participants may not reflect those presenting in clinical practice. Data from two trials suggest that routine chest radiography does not affect the clinical outcomes in adults and children presenting to a hospital with signs and symptoms suggestive of a LRTI. This conclusion may be weakened by the risk of bias of the studies and the lack of complete data available.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberCD009119
Number of pages35
JournalCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Volume2013
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Respiratory Tract Infections
Thorax
Randomized Controlled Trials
Control Groups
Hospitalization
Confidence Intervals
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Sick Leave
Mortality
Selection Bias
South Africa
Sputum
Cough
Radiography
MEDLINE
Signs and Symptoms
Pneumonia
Patient Care
X-Rays
Morbidity

Cite this

Cao, A. M., Choy, J. P., Mohanakrishnan, L. N., Bain, R. F., & van Driel, M. L. (2013). Chest radiographs for acute lower respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013(12), [CD009119]. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009119.pub2
Cao, Amy Millicent ; Choy, Joleen P. ; Mohanakrishnan, Lakshmi Narayana ; Bain, Roger F. ; van Driel, Mieke L. / Chest radiographs for acute lower respiratory tract infections. In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013 ; Vol. 2013, No. 12.
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abstract = "Acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) (e.g. pneumonia) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and management focuses on early treatment. Chest radiographs (X-rays) are one of the commonly used strategies. Although radiological facilities are easily accessible in high-income countries, access can be limited in low-income countries. The efficacy of chest radiographs as a tool in the management of acute LRTIs has not been determined. Although chest radiographs are used for both diagnosis and management, our review focuses only on management. To assess the effectiveness of chest radiographs in addition to clinical judgement, compared to clinical judgement alone, in the management of acute LRTIs in children and adults. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 1; MEDLINE (1948 to January week 4, 2013); EMBASE (1974 to February 2013); CINAHL (1985 to February 2013) and LILACS (1985 to February 2013). We also searched NHS EED, DARE, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP (up to February 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of chest radiographs versus no chest radiographs in acute LRTIs in children and adults. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third review author compiled the findings and any discrepancies were discussed among all review authors. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two RCTs involving 2024 patients (1502 adults and 522 children) were included in this review. Both RCTs excluded patients with suspected severe disease. It was not possible to pool the results due to incomplete data. Both included trials concluded that the use of chest radiographs did not result in a better clinical outcome (duration of illness and of symptoms) for patients with acute LRTIs. In the study involving children in South Africa, the median time to recovery was seven days (95{\%} confidence interval (CI) six to eight days (radiograph group) and six to nine days (control group)), P value = 0.50, log-rank test) and the hazard ratio for recovery was 1.08 (95{\%} CI 0.85 to 1.34). In the study with adult participants in the USA, the average duration of illness was 16.9 days versus 17.0 days (P value > 0.05) in the radiograph and no radiograph groups respectively. This result was not statistically significant and there were no significant differences in patient outcomes between the groups with or without chest radiograph.The study in adults also reports that chest radiographs did not affect the frequencies with which clinicians ordered return visits or antibiotics. However, there was a benefit of chest radiographs in a subgroup of the adult participants with an infiltrate on their radiograph, with a reduction in length of illness (16.2 days in the group allocated to chest radiographs and 22.6 in the non-chest radiograph group, P < 0.05), duration of cough (14.2 versus 21.3 days, P < 0.05) and duration of sputum production (8.5 versus 17.8 days, P < 0.05). The authors mention that this difference in outcome between the intervention and control group in this particular subgroup only was probably a result of {"}the higher proportion of patients treated with antibiotics when the radiograph was used in patient care{"}.Hospitalisation rates were only reported in the study involving children and it was found that a higher proportion of patients in the radiograph group (4.7{\%}) required hospitalisation compared to the control group (2.3{\%}) with the result not being statistically significant (P = 0.14). None of the trials report the effect on mortality, complications of infection or adverse events from chest radiographs. Overall, the included studies had a low or unclear risk for blinding, attrition bias and reporting bias, but a high risk of selection bias. Both trials had strict exclusion criteria which is important but may limit the clinical practicability of the results as participants may not reflect those presenting in clinical practice. Data from two trials suggest that routine chest radiography does not affect the clinical outcomes in adults and children presenting to a hospital with signs and symptoms suggestive of a LRTI. This conclusion may be weakened by the risk of bias of the studies and the lack of complete data available.",
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Cao, AM, Choy, JP, Mohanakrishnan, LN, Bain, RF & van Driel, ML 2013, 'Chest radiographs for acute lower respiratory tract infections' Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2013, no. 12, CD009119. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009119.pub2

Chest radiographs for acute lower respiratory tract infections. / Cao, Amy Millicent; Choy, Joleen P.; Mohanakrishnan, Lakshmi Narayana; Bain, Roger F.; van Driel, Mieke L.

In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 2013, No. 12, CD009119, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chest radiographs for acute lower respiratory tract infections

AU - Cao, Amy Millicent

AU - Choy, Joleen P.

AU - Mohanakrishnan, Lakshmi Narayana

AU - Bain, Roger F.

AU - van Driel, Mieke L.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) (e.g. pneumonia) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and management focuses on early treatment. Chest radiographs (X-rays) are one of the commonly used strategies. Although radiological facilities are easily accessible in high-income countries, access can be limited in low-income countries. The efficacy of chest radiographs as a tool in the management of acute LRTIs has not been determined. Although chest radiographs are used for both diagnosis and management, our review focuses only on management. To assess the effectiveness of chest radiographs in addition to clinical judgement, compared to clinical judgement alone, in the management of acute LRTIs in children and adults. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 1; MEDLINE (1948 to January week 4, 2013); EMBASE (1974 to February 2013); CINAHL (1985 to February 2013) and LILACS (1985 to February 2013). We also searched NHS EED, DARE, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP (up to February 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of chest radiographs versus no chest radiographs in acute LRTIs in children and adults. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third review author compiled the findings and any discrepancies were discussed among all review authors. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two RCTs involving 2024 patients (1502 adults and 522 children) were included in this review. Both RCTs excluded patients with suspected severe disease. It was not possible to pool the results due to incomplete data. Both included trials concluded that the use of chest radiographs did not result in a better clinical outcome (duration of illness and of symptoms) for patients with acute LRTIs. In the study involving children in South Africa, the median time to recovery was seven days (95% confidence interval (CI) six to eight days (radiograph group) and six to nine days (control group)), P value = 0.50, log-rank test) and the hazard ratio for recovery was 1.08 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.34). In the study with adult participants in the USA, the average duration of illness was 16.9 days versus 17.0 days (P value > 0.05) in the radiograph and no radiograph groups respectively. This result was not statistically significant and there were no significant differences in patient outcomes between the groups with or without chest radiograph.The study in adults also reports that chest radiographs did not affect the frequencies with which clinicians ordered return visits or antibiotics. However, there was a benefit of chest radiographs in a subgroup of the adult participants with an infiltrate on their radiograph, with a reduction in length of illness (16.2 days in the group allocated to chest radiographs and 22.6 in the non-chest radiograph group, P < 0.05), duration of cough (14.2 versus 21.3 days, P < 0.05) and duration of sputum production (8.5 versus 17.8 days, P < 0.05). The authors mention that this difference in outcome between the intervention and control group in this particular subgroup only was probably a result of "the higher proportion of patients treated with antibiotics when the radiograph was used in patient care".Hospitalisation rates were only reported in the study involving children and it was found that a higher proportion of patients in the radiograph group (4.7%) required hospitalisation compared to the control group (2.3%) with the result not being statistically significant (P = 0.14). None of the trials report the effect on mortality, complications of infection or adverse events from chest radiographs. Overall, the included studies had a low or unclear risk for blinding, attrition bias and reporting bias, but a high risk of selection bias. Both trials had strict exclusion criteria which is important but may limit the clinical practicability of the results as participants may not reflect those presenting in clinical practice. Data from two trials suggest that routine chest radiography does not affect the clinical outcomes in adults and children presenting to a hospital with signs and symptoms suggestive of a LRTI. This conclusion may be weakened by the risk of bias of the studies and the lack of complete data available.

AB - Acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) (e.g. pneumonia) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and management focuses on early treatment. Chest radiographs (X-rays) are one of the commonly used strategies. Although radiological facilities are easily accessible in high-income countries, access can be limited in low-income countries. The efficacy of chest radiographs as a tool in the management of acute LRTIs has not been determined. Although chest radiographs are used for both diagnosis and management, our review focuses only on management. To assess the effectiveness of chest radiographs in addition to clinical judgement, compared to clinical judgement alone, in the management of acute LRTIs in children and adults. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 1; MEDLINE (1948 to January week 4, 2013); EMBASE (1974 to February 2013); CINAHL (1985 to February 2013) and LILACS (1985 to February 2013). We also searched NHS EED, DARE, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP (up to February 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of chest radiographs versus no chest radiographs in acute LRTIs in children and adults. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third review author compiled the findings and any discrepancies were discussed among all review authors. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two RCTs involving 2024 patients (1502 adults and 522 children) were included in this review. Both RCTs excluded patients with suspected severe disease. It was not possible to pool the results due to incomplete data. Both included trials concluded that the use of chest radiographs did not result in a better clinical outcome (duration of illness and of symptoms) for patients with acute LRTIs. In the study involving children in South Africa, the median time to recovery was seven days (95% confidence interval (CI) six to eight days (radiograph group) and six to nine days (control group)), P value = 0.50, log-rank test) and the hazard ratio for recovery was 1.08 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.34). In the study with adult participants in the USA, the average duration of illness was 16.9 days versus 17.0 days (P value > 0.05) in the radiograph and no radiograph groups respectively. This result was not statistically significant and there were no significant differences in patient outcomes between the groups with or without chest radiograph.The study in adults also reports that chest radiographs did not affect the frequencies with which clinicians ordered return visits or antibiotics. However, there was a benefit of chest radiographs in a subgroup of the adult participants with an infiltrate on their radiograph, with a reduction in length of illness (16.2 days in the group allocated to chest radiographs and 22.6 in the non-chest radiograph group, P < 0.05), duration of cough (14.2 versus 21.3 days, P < 0.05) and duration of sputum production (8.5 versus 17.8 days, P < 0.05). The authors mention that this difference in outcome between the intervention and control group in this particular subgroup only was probably a result of "the higher proportion of patients treated with antibiotics when the radiograph was used in patient care".Hospitalisation rates were only reported in the study involving children and it was found that a higher proportion of patients in the radiograph group (4.7%) required hospitalisation compared to the control group (2.3%) with the result not being statistically significant (P = 0.14). None of the trials report the effect on mortality, complications of infection or adverse events from chest radiographs. Overall, the included studies had a low or unclear risk for blinding, attrition bias and reporting bias, but a high risk of selection bias. Both trials had strict exclusion criteria which is important but may limit the clinical practicability of the results as participants may not reflect those presenting in clinical practice. Data from two trials suggest that routine chest radiography does not affect the clinical outcomes in adults and children presenting to a hospital with signs and symptoms suggestive of a LRTI. This conclusion may be weakened by the risk of bias of the studies and the lack of complete data available.

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