The diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been in a state of flux since the World Health Organization accepted and endorsed the International Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group's diagnostic pathway and criteria in 2013. These new diagnostic criteria identify an increasing number of women at risk of hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HGiP). Maternal hyperglycemia represents a significant risk to the mother and fetus, in both the short and long term. Controversially, metformin use for the treatment of GDM is increasing in Australia. This article identifies the multiple and varied presentations of HGiP, of which GDM is the most commonly encountered. The degree of maternal hyperglycemia experienced affects the outcomes for both the mother and neonate, and specific diagnosis determines the appropriate treatment for the pregnancy. Given the increasing incidence of women with dysglycemia and those developing HGiP, this is an important area for research and clinical attention for all health professionals.