Cardiovascular disease and risk factors among 345 adults in rural India-the Andhra Pradesh Rural Health Initiative

Clara Chow, Magnolia Cardona, P. Krishnam Raju, Srinivas Iyengar, Akamshetty Sukumar, Ravi Raju, Sam Colman, P. Madhav, Rama Raju, K. Srinath Reddy, David Celermajer, Bruce Neal

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Abstract

Background: Heart attack and stroke are problems already faced by some urban populations of India, but less is known about cardiovascular disease and risk factors in rural areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels and management of major cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in two villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done by selecting a random sample stratified by age and gender from each village using census lists compiled in 2002. For each individual, trained study staff administered a Telugu-translation of a structured questionnaire, performed a brief physical examination and collected a fasting venous blood sample. Weighted estimates of mean (or percentages with) risk factor levels in the population were calculated and are reported with confidence intervals unless otherwise specified. Results: Data was collected from 345 adults aged 20 to 90. The average household size was 4.2 and the mean combined household income was about Indian Rupees 25,454 (US$580) per year. The mean systolic blood pressure was 116 (114-117) mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure 73 (114-120) mm Hg, total cholesterol 4.6 (4.5-4.7) mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol 0.8 (0.8-0.9) mmol/L, LDL-cholesterol 3.2 (3.1-3.3) mmol/L and triglyceride 1.3 (1.2-1.4) mmol/L. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.9% (15.4-24.4%), hypertension 20.3% (16.2-24.4%), diabetes 3.7% (1.8-5.5%), overweight 16.9% (12.3-21.5%) and obesity 4.4% (1.9-6.8%). A medical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (previous heart attack, stroke or angina) was reported by 2.5% (1.1-3.9%) and a further 1.1% (0.1-2.1%) had angina by the 'Rose' classification. Conclusions: The possibility of increasing cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of vascular disease in areas of rural India represent a public health concern. Larger and repeated epidemiological studies focusing on chronic diseases are required to inform treatment and prevention strategies suitable for use in these areas and other resource poor settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-185
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Volume116
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2007
Externally publishedYes

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Rural Health
India
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Pressure
Stroke
Myocardial Infarction
Urban Population
Censuses
Vascular Diseases
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Physical Examination
Epidemiologic Studies
Fasting
Triglycerides
Chronic Disease
Public Health
Obesity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Smoking

Cite this

Chow, Clara ; Cardona, Magnolia ; Raju, P. Krishnam ; Iyengar, Srinivas ; Sukumar, Akamshetty ; Raju, Ravi ; Colman, Sam ; Madhav, P. ; Raju, Rama ; Srinath Reddy, K. ; Celermajer, David ; Neal, Bruce. / Cardiovascular disease and risk factors among 345 adults in rural India-the Andhra Pradesh Rural Health Initiative. In: International Journal of Cardiology. 2007 ; Vol. 116, No. 2. pp. 180-185.
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abstract = "Background: Heart attack and stroke are problems already faced by some urban populations of India, but less is known about cardiovascular disease and risk factors in rural areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels and management of major cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in two villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done by selecting a random sample stratified by age and gender from each village using census lists compiled in 2002. For each individual, trained study staff administered a Telugu-translation of a structured questionnaire, performed a brief physical examination and collected a fasting venous blood sample. Weighted estimates of mean (or percentages with) risk factor levels in the population were calculated and are reported with confidence intervals unless otherwise specified. Results: Data was collected from 345 adults aged 20 to 90. The average household size was 4.2 and the mean combined household income was about Indian Rupees 25,454 (US$580) per year. The mean systolic blood pressure was 116 (114-117) mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure 73 (114-120) mm Hg, total cholesterol 4.6 (4.5-4.7) mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol 0.8 (0.8-0.9) mmol/L, LDL-cholesterol 3.2 (3.1-3.3) mmol/L and triglyceride 1.3 (1.2-1.4) mmol/L. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.9{\%} (15.4-24.4{\%}), hypertension 20.3{\%} (16.2-24.4{\%}), diabetes 3.7{\%} (1.8-5.5{\%}), overweight 16.9{\%} (12.3-21.5{\%}) and obesity 4.4{\%} (1.9-6.8{\%}). A medical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (previous heart attack, stroke or angina) was reported by 2.5{\%} (1.1-3.9{\%}) and a further 1.1{\%} (0.1-2.1{\%}) had angina by the 'Rose' classification. Conclusions: The possibility of increasing cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of vascular disease in areas of rural India represent a public health concern. Larger and repeated epidemiological studies focusing on chronic diseases are required to inform treatment and prevention strategies suitable for use in these areas and other resource poor settings.",
author = "Clara Chow and Magnolia Cardona and Raju, {P. Krishnam} and Srinivas Iyengar and Akamshetty Sukumar and Ravi Raju and Sam Colman and P. Madhav and Rama Raju and {Srinath Reddy}, K. and David Celermajer and Bruce Neal",
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Chow, C, Cardona, M, Raju, PK, Iyengar, S, Sukumar, A, Raju, R, Colman, S, Madhav, P, Raju, R, Srinath Reddy, K, Celermajer, D & Neal, B 2007, 'Cardiovascular disease and risk factors among 345 adults in rural India-the Andhra Pradesh Rural Health Initiative' International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 180-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.03.043

Cardiovascular disease and risk factors among 345 adults in rural India-the Andhra Pradesh Rural Health Initiative. / Chow, Clara; Cardona, Magnolia; Raju, P. Krishnam; Iyengar, Srinivas; Sukumar, Akamshetty; Raju, Ravi; Colman, Sam; Madhav, P.; Raju, Rama; Srinath Reddy, K.; Celermajer, David; Neal, Bruce.

In: International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 116, No. 2, 20.03.2007, p. 180-185.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiovascular disease and risk factors among 345 adults in rural India-the Andhra Pradesh Rural Health Initiative

AU - Chow, Clara

AU - Cardona, Magnolia

AU - Raju, P. Krishnam

AU - Iyengar, Srinivas

AU - Sukumar, Akamshetty

AU - Raju, Ravi

AU - Colman, Sam

AU - Madhav, P.

AU - Raju, Rama

AU - Srinath Reddy, K.

AU - Celermajer, David

AU - Neal, Bruce

PY - 2007/3/20

Y1 - 2007/3/20

N2 - Background: Heart attack and stroke are problems already faced by some urban populations of India, but less is known about cardiovascular disease and risk factors in rural areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels and management of major cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in two villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done by selecting a random sample stratified by age and gender from each village using census lists compiled in 2002. For each individual, trained study staff administered a Telugu-translation of a structured questionnaire, performed a brief physical examination and collected a fasting venous blood sample. Weighted estimates of mean (or percentages with) risk factor levels in the population were calculated and are reported with confidence intervals unless otherwise specified. Results: Data was collected from 345 adults aged 20 to 90. The average household size was 4.2 and the mean combined household income was about Indian Rupees 25,454 (US$580) per year. The mean systolic blood pressure was 116 (114-117) mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure 73 (114-120) mm Hg, total cholesterol 4.6 (4.5-4.7) mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol 0.8 (0.8-0.9) mmol/L, LDL-cholesterol 3.2 (3.1-3.3) mmol/L and triglyceride 1.3 (1.2-1.4) mmol/L. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.9% (15.4-24.4%), hypertension 20.3% (16.2-24.4%), diabetes 3.7% (1.8-5.5%), overweight 16.9% (12.3-21.5%) and obesity 4.4% (1.9-6.8%). A medical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (previous heart attack, stroke or angina) was reported by 2.5% (1.1-3.9%) and a further 1.1% (0.1-2.1%) had angina by the 'Rose' classification. Conclusions: The possibility of increasing cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of vascular disease in areas of rural India represent a public health concern. Larger and repeated epidemiological studies focusing on chronic diseases are required to inform treatment and prevention strategies suitable for use in these areas and other resource poor settings.

AB - Background: Heart attack and stroke are problems already faced by some urban populations of India, but less is known about cardiovascular disease and risk factors in rural areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels and management of major cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in two villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done by selecting a random sample stratified by age and gender from each village using census lists compiled in 2002. For each individual, trained study staff administered a Telugu-translation of a structured questionnaire, performed a brief physical examination and collected a fasting venous blood sample. Weighted estimates of mean (or percentages with) risk factor levels in the population were calculated and are reported with confidence intervals unless otherwise specified. Results: Data was collected from 345 adults aged 20 to 90. The average household size was 4.2 and the mean combined household income was about Indian Rupees 25,454 (US$580) per year. The mean systolic blood pressure was 116 (114-117) mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure 73 (114-120) mm Hg, total cholesterol 4.6 (4.5-4.7) mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol 0.8 (0.8-0.9) mmol/L, LDL-cholesterol 3.2 (3.1-3.3) mmol/L and triglyceride 1.3 (1.2-1.4) mmol/L. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.9% (15.4-24.4%), hypertension 20.3% (16.2-24.4%), diabetes 3.7% (1.8-5.5%), overweight 16.9% (12.3-21.5%) and obesity 4.4% (1.9-6.8%). A medical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (previous heart attack, stroke or angina) was reported by 2.5% (1.1-3.9%) and a further 1.1% (0.1-2.1%) had angina by the 'Rose' classification. Conclusions: The possibility of increasing cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of vascular disease in areas of rural India represent a public health concern. Larger and repeated epidemiological studies focusing on chronic diseases are required to inform treatment and prevention strategies suitable for use in these areas and other resource poor settings.

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JO - European Journal of Cardiology

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