Calculated Compliance in a Globalised World: The response to Social Licence compulsions by the Australian Live Export Sector

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review


The Australian live export sector has been under heightened pressure since media reports revealed widespread animal cruelty cases and violations of ethical treatment standards. After multiple reviews, the live export sector was expected to adapt to improved treatment standards. The live export sector must maintain its social licence to operate (SLO) by continuously engaging with the community and other stakeholders. This book chapter draws on the dual-layered social licence regulatory model. It argues that the increased vigilance by stakeholders means that governmental regulatory standards will themselves be subjected to audit by stakeholders and other custodians of SLO. In parallel to the regulated governmental response, the live export sector continues under pressure from the animal rights groups and the larger society to maintain their SLO. This regulation raises interesting issues for businesses, both domestic and foreign owned. The live export industry recognises that, given its controversial history, there are no guarantees that it will have the freedom to operate in the future. Therefore, the live export sector seeks to roll out a normative and cognitive strategy around engagement at the local community level with the media, policymakers, and influential opinion leaders. For foreign investors in the Australian cattle and livestock sector, understanding the dynamics of SLO-based regulation and the underlying normative and cognitive elements is essential to operate under the SLO umbrella.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGlobalisation in Transition: Human and Economic Perspectives
EditorsUmair Ghori, Mary Hiscock, Louise Parsons, Casey Watters
Place of PublicationSingapore
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9789819924394
ISBN (Print)9789819924387
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2023


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