The objective of the study was to identify pharmacoeconomic and research-based roles performed by pharmacists in Polish hospitals to provide an indication of the type of practice performed in these settings. Moreover, we would like to determine what pharmacotherapy-based cost-saving initiatives are undertaken by hospital pharmacists. We conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey among directors of hospital pharmacies from all general hospitals in Poland. For statistical analysis, Chi-squared Pearsonís test was applied. 166 out of 273 directors of hospital pharmacies took part in this study (response rate of 60.8%). Only 38/166 settings achieved sufficient founding form Polish public health insurance. To decrease costs of therapy hospital pharmacists take part in tenders (156/166), apply for drug donations (145/166) and purchase generic medicines (120/166). A small number of pharmacists perform both pharmacoeconomic (40/166) and scientific research (15/166). A high majority of hospital pharmacists take initiatives to decrease therapy costs. It is positive that pharmacists are involved in pharmacoeconomic duties, however, it is unknown to what degree these services may save limited measures. Overall, scientific research is not a common practice in Polish hospitals and it is still insufficient.