Beauty in bulk: An examination of Performance and Image Enhancing Drug (PIED) use and attitudes

Terrence Goldsworthy, Laura McGillivray

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionResearchpeer-review


The growth of the gym subculture has been fuelled by increased popularity and pressure for physical performance and image enhancement; however parallel to this are potentially dangerous behaviours involving performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs). Evidence suggests that the market for PIEDs has expanded and such illicit substances are currently widely available and consumed. Reports from users, evidence from relevant industry bodies and the significant rise in PIED related arrests and seizures in recent years have all contributed to the troubling picture emerging. In response to tougher legal measures for those buying and selling in this market PIEDs are now aligned with other illicit drugs like heroin, amphetamine and cocaine in terms of seriousness of offence, penalty and reflecting the overall potential for user and community harms. Legislative changes alongside observable popularity of the gym subculture, and media coverage of elite athletes embroiled in doping scandals continue to generate attention and controversy surrounding PIEDs and raises questions about the reality of these drugs. This study seeks to contribute to the growing knowledge base surrounding PIEDs by measuring current trends as well as listening to and incorporating the valuable perspectives of users and the wider community. This paper presents the preliminary findings from survey respondents (n=86) who reveal unique insights into the experiences of those who currently or have historically consumed PIEDs. Specifically, attention is paid to respondents’ perceptions about the drugs’ potential capacity for physical and/or psychological harm or addiction.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of Addiction 2016: The Australian & New Zealand Addiction Conference
Subtitle of host publicationAlcohol, Other Drugs, Behavioural Addictions: Prevention, Treatment and Recovery
EditorsK. Ortiz
Place of PublicationNerang
PublisherAustralian and New Zealand Mental Health Association
Number of pages23
ISBN (Print)9781922232434
Publication statusPublished - 2016
EventThe Australian & New Zealand Addiction Conference: Addiction 2016: Alcohol, Other Drugs, Behavioural Addictions: Prevention, Treatment and Recovery - Gold Coast, Gold Coast, Australia
Duration: 18 May 201620 May 2016


ConferenceThe Australian & New Zealand Addiction Conference: Addiction 2016
CityGold Coast
Internet address


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