Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has emerged as a strategy to integrate research evidence within clinical decision-making. We have explored awareness, knowledge and attitudes about EBM among doctors in the Gaza Strip. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among doctors working in health centres in Gaza, using a 20 item, web-based self-administered questionnaire. Approximately two thirds of the respondents welcomed EBM in principle, and believed that it could improve patient care. However, they had a relatively low level of knowledge about EBM. The main barriers to EBM mentioned by respondents were lack of knowledge needed to practise EBM [n = 47 (35%)]; negative attitude among senior colleagues [n = 34 (25%)]; lack of relevant resources [n = 31 (23%)]; work overload [n = 27 (20%)]; and lack of institutional support [n = 248 (18%)]. Thus, there are personal and organisational barriers to its practice that need to be addressed.