Background: Sub-optimal nutrition status is common amongst patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) and leads to poor clinical outcome. This population experiences multi-factorial challenges to achieving optimal nutritional status, particularly driven by inadequate intake.
Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to identify factors associated with inadequate protein intake and sub-optimal nutritional status in patients undergoing PD. Design/Participants: This was a cross-sectional study of 67 adult patients receiving PD (mean age 59±14 years; 57% male) within a single centre. Participants were consecutively recruited and interviewed by renal dietitians, collecting: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA); quality of life (using EQ-5D); dietary intake (via dietary interview); and appetite (using Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool). Participant demographics were obtained via survey or medical charts. Main outcome measures were inadequate dietary protein intake (<1.1g/kg adjusted body weight/day) and malnutrition (as defined by SGA rating B or C).
Results: Overall, 15 (22%) patients were malnourished and 29 (43%) had inadequate protein intake. Poor appetite (anorexia) was reported in 62% (18/29) of participants with inadequate protein malnourished patients reported anorexia versus 12 (23%) of the well-nourished patients (p=0.0001).
Conclusion: Anorexia was a key risk factor for inadequate protein intake and malnutrition in patients undergoing PD. These findings highlight a need to closely monitor patients with appetite disturbances.