Antisense knockdown of GLAST, a glial glutamate transporter, compromises retinal function

Nigel Louis Barnett, David Vaughan Pow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose. To elucidate the role of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST, in the regulation of retinal function. Methods. Antisense oligonucleotides to GLAST were injected intravitreally into the left eye of Wistar rats. Sense oligonucleotides (control) were injected into the right eye over a period of 3 days. Scotopic flash electroretinograms were recorded over a 20-day period. To assay whether the antisense oligonucleotides caused a reduction in the expression or the activity of GLAST, retinas were exposed to D-aspartate, a nonendogenous substrate of glutamate transporters. The retinas were immunolabeled with specific antibodies for D-aspartate. Retinal GLAST and glutamate distributions also were determined immunocytochemically. Results. Antisense oligonucleotides markedly suppressed the electroretinogram b-wave, whereas sense oligonucleotides had no significant effect. SignifiCant changes in the electroretinogram were apparent 5 days after injection of antisense oligonucleotide and were sustained for at least 20 days. A marked reduction of D-aspartate uptake into Muller cells of retinas that had been exposed to the antisense oligonucleotides 5 days previously suggests a reduction of GLAST activity. The retinas, however, displayed no evidence of excitotoxic neuronal degeneration, and the distribution of glutamate was unaffected by antisense treatment. Conclusions. The observed lack of neuronal degeneration suggests that reduced glutamate uptake into Muller cells does not cause excitotoxic tissue damage. A direct perturbation of glutamatergic signaling is more likely, because the rapid clearance of glutamate is necessary for light elicited signaling between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. This suggests that GLAST is essential for the maintenance of normal retinal transmission.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)585-591
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume41
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2000
Externally publishedYes

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Amino Acid Transport System X-AG
Antisense Oligonucleotides
Neuroglia
D-Aspartic Acid
Retina
Glutamic Acid
Ependymoglial Cells
Oligonucleotides
Photoreceptor Cells
Wistar Rats
Maintenance
Light
Injections
Antibodies

Cite this

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title = "Antisense knockdown of GLAST, a glial glutamate transporter, compromises retinal function",
abstract = "Purpose. To elucidate the role of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST, in the regulation of retinal function. Methods. Antisense oligonucleotides to GLAST were injected intravitreally into the left eye of Wistar rats. Sense oligonucleotides (control) were injected into the right eye over a period of 3 days. Scotopic flash electroretinograms were recorded over a 20-day period. To assay whether the antisense oligonucleotides caused a reduction in the expression or the activity of GLAST, retinas were exposed to D-aspartate, a nonendogenous substrate of glutamate transporters. The retinas were immunolabeled with specific antibodies for D-aspartate. Retinal GLAST and glutamate distributions also were determined immunocytochemically. Results. Antisense oligonucleotides markedly suppressed the electroretinogram b-wave, whereas sense oligonucleotides had no significant effect. SignifiCant changes in the electroretinogram were apparent 5 days after injection of antisense oligonucleotide and were sustained for at least 20 days. A marked reduction of D-aspartate uptake into Muller cells of retinas that had been exposed to the antisense oligonucleotides 5 days previously suggests a reduction of GLAST activity. The retinas, however, displayed no evidence of excitotoxic neuronal degeneration, and the distribution of glutamate was unaffected by antisense treatment. Conclusions. The observed lack of neuronal degeneration suggests that reduced glutamate uptake into Muller cells does not cause excitotoxic tissue damage. A direct perturbation of glutamatergic signaling is more likely, because the rapid clearance of glutamate is necessary for light elicited signaling between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. This suggests that GLAST is essential for the maintenance of normal retinal transmission.",
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Antisense knockdown of GLAST, a glial glutamate transporter, compromises retinal function. / Barnett, Nigel Louis; Pow, David Vaughan.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 41, No. 2, 15.02.2000, p. 585-591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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N2 - Purpose. To elucidate the role of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST, in the regulation of retinal function. Methods. Antisense oligonucleotides to GLAST were injected intravitreally into the left eye of Wistar rats. Sense oligonucleotides (control) were injected into the right eye over a period of 3 days. Scotopic flash electroretinograms were recorded over a 20-day period. To assay whether the antisense oligonucleotides caused a reduction in the expression or the activity of GLAST, retinas were exposed to D-aspartate, a nonendogenous substrate of glutamate transporters. The retinas were immunolabeled with specific antibodies for D-aspartate. Retinal GLAST and glutamate distributions also were determined immunocytochemically. Results. Antisense oligonucleotides markedly suppressed the electroretinogram b-wave, whereas sense oligonucleotides had no significant effect. SignifiCant changes in the electroretinogram were apparent 5 days after injection of antisense oligonucleotide and were sustained for at least 20 days. A marked reduction of D-aspartate uptake into Muller cells of retinas that had been exposed to the antisense oligonucleotides 5 days previously suggests a reduction of GLAST activity. The retinas, however, displayed no evidence of excitotoxic neuronal degeneration, and the distribution of glutamate was unaffected by antisense treatment. Conclusions. The observed lack of neuronal degeneration suggests that reduced glutamate uptake into Muller cells does not cause excitotoxic tissue damage. A direct perturbation of glutamatergic signaling is more likely, because the rapid clearance of glutamate is necessary for light elicited signaling between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. This suggests that GLAST is essential for the maintenance of normal retinal transmission.

AB - Purpose. To elucidate the role of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST, in the regulation of retinal function. Methods. Antisense oligonucleotides to GLAST were injected intravitreally into the left eye of Wistar rats. Sense oligonucleotides (control) were injected into the right eye over a period of 3 days. Scotopic flash electroretinograms were recorded over a 20-day period. To assay whether the antisense oligonucleotides caused a reduction in the expression or the activity of GLAST, retinas were exposed to D-aspartate, a nonendogenous substrate of glutamate transporters. The retinas were immunolabeled with specific antibodies for D-aspartate. Retinal GLAST and glutamate distributions also were determined immunocytochemically. Results. Antisense oligonucleotides markedly suppressed the electroretinogram b-wave, whereas sense oligonucleotides had no significant effect. SignifiCant changes in the electroretinogram were apparent 5 days after injection of antisense oligonucleotide and were sustained for at least 20 days. A marked reduction of D-aspartate uptake into Muller cells of retinas that had been exposed to the antisense oligonucleotides 5 days previously suggests a reduction of GLAST activity. The retinas, however, displayed no evidence of excitotoxic neuronal degeneration, and the distribution of glutamate was unaffected by antisense treatment. Conclusions. The observed lack of neuronal degeneration suggests that reduced glutamate uptake into Muller cells does not cause excitotoxic tissue damage. A direct perturbation of glutamatergic signaling is more likely, because the rapid clearance of glutamate is necessary for light elicited signaling between photoreceptors and bipolar cells. This suggests that GLAST is essential for the maintenance of normal retinal transmission.

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