Adaptations to short-term high-fat diet persist during exercise despite high carbohydrate availability

Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Damien J. Angus, Gregory R. Cox, Sally A. Clark, Nicola K. Cummings, Ben Desbrow, Mark Hargreaves

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Abstract

Purpose: Five days of a high-fat diet produce metabolic adaptations that increase the rate of fat oxidation during prolonged exercise. We investigated whether enhanced rates of fat oxidation during submaximal exercise after 5 d of a high-fat diet would persist in the face of increased carbohydrate (CHO) availability before and during exercise. Methods: Eight well-trained subjects consumed either a high-CHO (9.3 g·kg-1·d-1 CHO, 1.1 g·kg-1·d-1 fat; HCHO) or an isoenergetic high-fat diet (2.5 g·kg-1·d-1 CHO, 4.3 g·kg-1·d-1 fat; FAT-adapt) for 5 d followed by a high-CHO diet and rest on day 6. On day 7, performance testing (2 h steady-state (SS) cycling at 70% peak O2 uptake [V̇O2peak] + time trial [TT]) of 7 kJ·kg-1) was undertaken after a CHO breakfast (CHO 2 g·kg-1) and intake of CHO during cycling (0.8 g·kg-1·h-1). Results: FAT-adapt reduced respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values before and during cycling at 70% V̇O2peak; RER was restored by I d CHO and CHO intake during cycling (0.90 ± 0.01, 0.8 ± 0.01, 0.91 ± 0.01, for days 1, 6, and 7, respectively). RER values were higher with HCHO (0.90 ± 0.01, 0.88 ± 0.01 (HCHO > FAT-adapt, P < 0.05), 0.95 ± 0.01 (HCHO > FAT-adapt, P < 0.05)). On day 7, fat oxidation remained elevated (73 ± 4 g vs 45 ± 3 g, P < 0.05), whereas CHO oxidation was reduced (354 ± 11 g vs 419 ± 13 g, P < 0.05) throughout SS in FAT-adapt versus HCHO. TT performance was similar for both trials (25.53 ± 0.67 min vs 25.45 ± 0.96 min, NS). Conclusion: Adaptations to a short-term high-fat diet persisted in the face of high CHO availability before and during exercise, but failed to confer a performance advantage during a TT lasting ∼ 25 min undertaken after 2 h of submaximal cycling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-91
Number of pages9
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume34
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002
Externally publishedYes

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High Fat Diet
Fats
Carbohydrates
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Burke, Louise M. ; Hawley, John A. ; Angus, Damien J. ; Cox, Gregory R. ; Clark, Sally A. ; Cummings, Nicola K. ; Desbrow, Ben ; Hargreaves, Mark. / Adaptations to short-term high-fat diet persist during exercise despite high carbohydrate availability. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2002 ; Vol. 34, No. 1. pp. 83-91.
@article{7b978fc7144643bcab03ab7151304fc9,
title = "Adaptations to short-term high-fat diet persist during exercise despite high carbohydrate availability",
abstract = "Purpose: Five days of a high-fat diet produce metabolic adaptations that increase the rate of fat oxidation during prolonged exercise. We investigated whether enhanced rates of fat oxidation during submaximal exercise after 5 d of a high-fat diet would persist in the face of increased carbohydrate (CHO) availability before and during exercise. Methods: Eight well-trained subjects consumed either a high-CHO (9.3 g·kg-1·d-1 CHO, 1.1 g·kg-1·d-1 fat; HCHO) or an isoenergetic high-fat diet (2.5 g·kg-1·d-1 CHO, 4.3 g·kg-1·d-1 fat; FAT-adapt) for 5 d followed by a high-CHO diet and rest on day 6. On day 7, performance testing (2 h steady-state (SS) cycling at 70{\%} peak O2 uptake [V̇O2peak] + time trial [TT]) of 7 kJ·kg-1) was undertaken after a CHO breakfast (CHO 2 g·kg-1) and intake of CHO during cycling (0.8 g·kg-1·h-1). Results: FAT-adapt reduced respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values before and during cycling at 70{\%} V̇O2peak; RER was restored by I d CHO and CHO intake during cycling (0.90 ± 0.01, 0.8 ± 0.01, 0.91 ± 0.01, for days 1, 6, and 7, respectively). RER values were higher with HCHO (0.90 ± 0.01, 0.88 ± 0.01 (HCHO > FAT-adapt, P < 0.05), 0.95 ± 0.01 (HCHO > FAT-adapt, P < 0.05)). On day 7, fat oxidation remained elevated (73 ± 4 g vs 45 ± 3 g, P < 0.05), whereas CHO oxidation was reduced (354 ± 11 g vs 419 ± 13 g, P < 0.05) throughout SS in FAT-adapt versus HCHO. TT performance was similar for both trials (25.53 ± 0.67 min vs 25.45 ± 0.96 min, NS). Conclusion: Adaptations to a short-term high-fat diet persisted in the face of high CHO availability before and during exercise, but failed to confer a performance advantage during a TT lasting ∼ 25 min undertaken after 2 h of submaximal cycling.",
author = "Burke, {Louise M.} and Hawley, {John A.} and Angus, {Damien J.} and Cox, {Gregory R.} and Clark, {Sally A.} and Cummings, {Nicola K.} and Ben Desbrow and Mark Hargreaves",
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Adaptations to short-term high-fat diet persist during exercise despite high carbohydrate availability. / Burke, Louise M.; Hawley, John A.; Angus, Damien J.; Cox, Gregory R.; Clark, Sally A.; Cummings, Nicola K.; Desbrow, Ben; Hargreaves, Mark.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 34, No. 1, 01.01.2002, p. 83-91.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adaptations to short-term high-fat diet persist during exercise despite high carbohydrate availability

AU - Burke, Louise M.

AU - Hawley, John A.

AU - Angus, Damien J.

AU - Cox, Gregory R.

AU - Clark, Sally A.

AU - Cummings, Nicola K.

AU - Desbrow, Ben

AU - Hargreaves, Mark

PY - 2002/1/1

Y1 - 2002/1/1

N2 - Purpose: Five days of a high-fat diet produce metabolic adaptations that increase the rate of fat oxidation during prolonged exercise. We investigated whether enhanced rates of fat oxidation during submaximal exercise after 5 d of a high-fat diet would persist in the face of increased carbohydrate (CHO) availability before and during exercise. Methods: Eight well-trained subjects consumed either a high-CHO (9.3 g·kg-1·d-1 CHO, 1.1 g·kg-1·d-1 fat; HCHO) or an isoenergetic high-fat diet (2.5 g·kg-1·d-1 CHO, 4.3 g·kg-1·d-1 fat; FAT-adapt) for 5 d followed by a high-CHO diet and rest on day 6. On day 7, performance testing (2 h steady-state (SS) cycling at 70% peak O2 uptake [V̇O2peak] + time trial [TT]) of 7 kJ·kg-1) was undertaken after a CHO breakfast (CHO 2 g·kg-1) and intake of CHO during cycling (0.8 g·kg-1·h-1). Results: FAT-adapt reduced respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values before and during cycling at 70% V̇O2peak; RER was restored by I d CHO and CHO intake during cycling (0.90 ± 0.01, 0.8 ± 0.01, 0.91 ± 0.01, for days 1, 6, and 7, respectively). RER values were higher with HCHO (0.90 ± 0.01, 0.88 ± 0.01 (HCHO > FAT-adapt, P < 0.05), 0.95 ± 0.01 (HCHO > FAT-adapt, P < 0.05)). On day 7, fat oxidation remained elevated (73 ± 4 g vs 45 ± 3 g, P < 0.05), whereas CHO oxidation was reduced (354 ± 11 g vs 419 ± 13 g, P < 0.05) throughout SS in FAT-adapt versus HCHO. TT performance was similar for both trials (25.53 ± 0.67 min vs 25.45 ± 0.96 min, NS). Conclusion: Adaptations to a short-term high-fat diet persisted in the face of high CHO availability before and during exercise, but failed to confer a performance advantage during a TT lasting ∼ 25 min undertaken after 2 h of submaximal cycling.

AB - Purpose: Five days of a high-fat diet produce metabolic adaptations that increase the rate of fat oxidation during prolonged exercise. We investigated whether enhanced rates of fat oxidation during submaximal exercise after 5 d of a high-fat diet would persist in the face of increased carbohydrate (CHO) availability before and during exercise. Methods: Eight well-trained subjects consumed either a high-CHO (9.3 g·kg-1·d-1 CHO, 1.1 g·kg-1·d-1 fat; HCHO) or an isoenergetic high-fat diet (2.5 g·kg-1·d-1 CHO, 4.3 g·kg-1·d-1 fat; FAT-adapt) for 5 d followed by a high-CHO diet and rest on day 6. On day 7, performance testing (2 h steady-state (SS) cycling at 70% peak O2 uptake [V̇O2peak] + time trial [TT]) of 7 kJ·kg-1) was undertaken after a CHO breakfast (CHO 2 g·kg-1) and intake of CHO during cycling (0.8 g·kg-1·h-1). Results: FAT-adapt reduced respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values before and during cycling at 70% V̇O2peak; RER was restored by I d CHO and CHO intake during cycling (0.90 ± 0.01, 0.8 ± 0.01, 0.91 ± 0.01, for days 1, 6, and 7, respectively). RER values were higher with HCHO (0.90 ± 0.01, 0.88 ± 0.01 (HCHO > FAT-adapt, P < 0.05), 0.95 ± 0.01 (HCHO > FAT-adapt, P < 0.05)). On day 7, fat oxidation remained elevated (73 ± 4 g vs 45 ± 3 g, P < 0.05), whereas CHO oxidation was reduced (354 ± 11 g vs 419 ± 13 g, P < 0.05) throughout SS in FAT-adapt versus HCHO. TT performance was similar for both trials (25.53 ± 0.67 min vs 25.45 ± 0.96 min, NS). Conclusion: Adaptations to a short-term high-fat diet persisted in the face of high CHO availability before and during exercise, but failed to confer a performance advantage during a TT lasting ∼ 25 min undertaken after 2 h of submaximal cycling.

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U2 - 10.1097/00005768-200201000-00014

DO - 10.1097/00005768-200201000-00014

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 83

EP - 91

JO - Medicine and science in sports

JF - Medicine and science in sports

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 1

ER -