Acute effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrates and fat to protein on gastric emptying, blood glucose, gut hormones, appetite, and energy intake

Caroline Giezenaar, Kylie Lange, Trygve Hausken, Karen L. Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Whey protein, when ingested on its own, load-dependently slows gastric emptying and stimulates gut hormone concentrations in healthy young men. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrate (dextrose) and fat (olive oil) to whey protein. In randomized, double-blind order, 13 healthy young men (age: 23 ± 1 years, body mass index: 24 ± 1 kg/m2) ingested a control drink (450 mL; ~2 kcal/‘control’) or iso-volumetric drinks containing protein/carbohydrate/fat: (i) 14 g/28 g/12.4 g (280 kcal/‘M280′), (ii) 70 g/28 g/12.4 g (504kcal/‘M504′), and (iii) 70 g/0 g/0 g (280 kcal/‘P280′), on 4 separate study days. Gastric emptying (n = 11, 3D-ultrasonography), blood glucose, plasma insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0–180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad-libitum buffet-meal energy intake (180–210 min) were determined. Substitution of protein with carbohydrate and fat was associated with faster gastric emptying (lower 50% emptying time (T50)), reduced suppression of ghrelin, and stimulation of GLP-1 (all P < 0.001); while the addition of carbohydrate and fat to protein did not affect gastric emptying or gut hormone responses significantly. Total energy intake (i.e., drink plus meal) was greater after all caloric drinks than control (P < 0.001). In conclusion, substitution of whey protein with dextrose and olive oil accelerated gastric emptying. Higher protein content of a mixed macronutrient drink increased gut hormone and insulin responses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1451
JournalNutrients
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

gastric emptying
Gastric Emptying
acute effects
Appetite
appetite
Energy Intake
blood glucose
Blood Glucose
energy intake
digestive system
Fats
Carbohydrates
hormones
Hormones
carbohydrates
whey protein
glucagon-like peptide 1
lipids
ghrelin
Ghrelin

Cite this

Giezenaar, Caroline ; Lange, Kylie ; Hausken, Trygve ; Jones, Karen L. ; Horowitz, Michael ; Chapman, Ian ; Soenen, Stijn. / Acute effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrates and fat to protein on gastric emptying, blood glucose, gut hormones, appetite, and energy intake. In: Nutrients. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 10.
@article{bbc6b3afb6664af692c35867e1d37828,
title = "Acute effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrates and fat to protein on gastric emptying, blood glucose, gut hormones, appetite, and energy intake",
abstract = "Whey protein, when ingested on its own, load-dependently slows gastric emptying and stimulates gut hormone concentrations in healthy young men. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrate (dextrose) and fat (olive oil) to whey protein. In randomized, double-blind order, 13 healthy young men (age: 23 ± 1 years, body mass index: 24 ± 1 kg/m2) ingested a control drink (450 mL; ~2 kcal/‘control’) or iso-volumetric drinks containing protein/carbohydrate/fat: (i) 14 g/28 g/12.4 g (280 kcal/‘M280′), (ii) 70 g/28 g/12.4 g (504kcal/‘M504′), and (iii) 70 g/0 g/0 g (280 kcal/‘P280′), on 4 separate study days. Gastric emptying (n = 11, 3D-ultrasonography), blood glucose, plasma insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0–180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad-libitum buffet-meal energy intake (180–210 min) were determined. Substitution of protein with carbohydrate and fat was associated with faster gastric emptying (lower 50{\%} emptying time (T50)), reduced suppression of ghrelin, and stimulation of GLP-1 (all P < 0.001); while the addition of carbohydrate and fat to protein did not affect gastric emptying or gut hormone responses significantly. Total energy intake (i.e., drink plus meal) was greater after all caloric drinks than control (P < 0.001). In conclusion, substitution of whey protein with dextrose and olive oil accelerated gastric emptying. Higher protein content of a mixed macronutrient drink increased gut hormone and insulin responses.",
author = "Caroline Giezenaar and Kylie Lange and Trygve Hausken and Jones, {Karen L.} and Michael Horowitz and Ian Chapman and Stijn Soenen",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
day = "7",
doi = "10.3390/nu10101451",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Nutrients",
issn = "2072-6643",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "10",

}

Acute effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrates and fat to protein on gastric emptying, blood glucose, gut hormones, appetite, and energy intake. / Giezenaar, Caroline; Lange, Kylie; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L.; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 10, No. 10, 1451, 07.10.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrates and fat to protein on gastric emptying, blood glucose, gut hormones, appetite, and energy intake

AU - Giezenaar, Caroline

AU - Lange, Kylie

AU - Hausken, Trygve

AU - Jones, Karen L.

AU - Horowitz, Michael

AU - Chapman, Ian

AU - Soenen, Stijn

PY - 2018/10/7

Y1 - 2018/10/7

N2 - Whey protein, when ingested on its own, load-dependently slows gastric emptying and stimulates gut hormone concentrations in healthy young men. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrate (dextrose) and fat (olive oil) to whey protein. In randomized, double-blind order, 13 healthy young men (age: 23 ± 1 years, body mass index: 24 ± 1 kg/m2) ingested a control drink (450 mL; ~2 kcal/‘control’) or iso-volumetric drinks containing protein/carbohydrate/fat: (i) 14 g/28 g/12.4 g (280 kcal/‘M280′), (ii) 70 g/28 g/12.4 g (504kcal/‘M504′), and (iii) 70 g/0 g/0 g (280 kcal/‘P280′), on 4 separate study days. Gastric emptying (n = 11, 3D-ultrasonography), blood glucose, plasma insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0–180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad-libitum buffet-meal energy intake (180–210 min) were determined. Substitution of protein with carbohydrate and fat was associated with faster gastric emptying (lower 50% emptying time (T50)), reduced suppression of ghrelin, and stimulation of GLP-1 (all P < 0.001); while the addition of carbohydrate and fat to protein did not affect gastric emptying or gut hormone responses significantly. Total energy intake (i.e., drink plus meal) was greater after all caloric drinks than control (P < 0.001). In conclusion, substitution of whey protein with dextrose and olive oil accelerated gastric emptying. Higher protein content of a mixed macronutrient drink increased gut hormone and insulin responses.

AB - Whey protein, when ingested on its own, load-dependently slows gastric emptying and stimulates gut hormone concentrations in healthy young men. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of substitution, and addition, of carbohydrate (dextrose) and fat (olive oil) to whey protein. In randomized, double-blind order, 13 healthy young men (age: 23 ± 1 years, body mass index: 24 ± 1 kg/m2) ingested a control drink (450 mL; ~2 kcal/‘control’) or iso-volumetric drinks containing protein/carbohydrate/fat: (i) 14 g/28 g/12.4 g (280 kcal/‘M280′), (ii) 70 g/28 g/12.4 g (504kcal/‘M504′), and (iii) 70 g/0 g/0 g (280 kcal/‘P280′), on 4 separate study days. Gastric emptying (n = 11, 3D-ultrasonography), blood glucose, plasma insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0–180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad-libitum buffet-meal energy intake (180–210 min) were determined. Substitution of protein with carbohydrate and fat was associated with faster gastric emptying (lower 50% emptying time (T50)), reduced suppression of ghrelin, and stimulation of GLP-1 (all P < 0.001); while the addition of carbohydrate and fat to protein did not affect gastric emptying or gut hormone responses significantly. Total energy intake (i.e., drink plus meal) was greater after all caloric drinks than control (P < 0.001). In conclusion, substitution of whey protein with dextrose and olive oil accelerated gastric emptying. Higher protein content of a mixed macronutrient drink increased gut hormone and insulin responses.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85054771655&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/nu10101451

DO - 10.3390/nu10101451

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - Nutrients

JF - Nutrients

SN - 2072-6643

IS - 10

M1 - 1451

ER -