Acute dietary carbohydrate manipulation and the subsequent inflammatory and hepcidin responses to exercise

Claire E. Badenhorst, Brian Dawson, Gregory R. Cox, Coby M. Laarakkers, Dorine W. Swinkels, Peter Peeling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To examine the effects of 24-h controlled carbohydrate intake on next day pre- and post-exercise inflammatory and hepcidin responses. Methods: In a crossover design, 12 well-trained endurance athletes (Ht 181.08 ± 7.68 cm; Wt 74.8 ± 11.5 kg, VO2peak 68.9 ± 7.2 ml kg−1 min−1) completed two experimental (2-day) trials. On day 1, participants completed a glycogen depletion task, including a 16-km run (80 % vVO2peak) and 5 × 1 min efforts (130 % vVO2peak) separated by 2-min recovery. Subsequently, strict dietary control was enforced for 24 h, where low carbohydrate (LCHO 3 g kg−1) or high carbohydrate (HCHO 10 g kg−1) diets were provided. Twenty-four hours later, participants completed an 8 × 3 min interval running session at 85 % vVO2peak followed by 3-h monitored recovery. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, immediately post- and 3-h post-exercise, which were analyzed for interleukin-6, serum iron, ferritin and hepcidin. Results: Interleukin-6 was elevated (p < 0.001) immediately post-exercise compared to baseline in both conditions, but was lower in HCHO (p = 0.015). Hepcidin levels were also lower at baseline (p = 0.049) in HCHO, and a large effect (d = 0.72) indicated a trend for lower levels at 3-h post-exercise compared to LCHO. Serum iron was increased post-exercise for both trials (p = 0.001), whereas serum ferritin remained unchanged. Conclusions: Twenty-four hours of controlled low carbohydrate intake resulted in higher baseline hepcidin levels and post-exercise IL-6 responses than a high carbohydrate intake. Such hormone increases may be induced by gluconeogenic signaling of the liver, and may negatively impact an athlete’s iron metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2521-2530
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume115
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Sep 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Hepcidins
Dietary Carbohydrates
Exercise
Carbohydrates
Interleukin-6
Iron
Ferritins
Athletes
Serum
Glycogen
Running
Cross-Over Studies
Hormones
Diet
Liver

Cite this

Badenhorst, Claire E. ; Dawson, Brian ; Cox, Gregory R. ; Laarakkers, Coby M. ; Swinkels, Dorine W. ; Peeling, Peter. / Acute dietary carbohydrate manipulation and the subsequent inflammatory and hepcidin responses to exercise. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2015 ; Vol. 115, No. 12. pp. 2521-2530.
@article{7ed2c520f475432f91473b4fb80ff6bc,
title = "Acute dietary carbohydrate manipulation and the subsequent inflammatory and hepcidin responses to exercise",
abstract = "Purpose: To examine the effects of 24-h controlled carbohydrate intake on next day pre- and post-exercise inflammatory and hepcidin responses. Methods: In a crossover design, 12 well-trained endurance athletes (Ht 181.08 ± 7.68 cm; Wt 74.8 ± 11.5 kg, VO2peak 68.9 ± 7.2 ml kg−1 min−1) completed two experimental (2-day) trials. On day 1, participants completed a glycogen depletion task, including a 16-km run (80 {\%} vVO2peak) and 5 × 1 min efforts (130 {\%} vVO2peak) separated by 2-min recovery. Subsequently, strict dietary control was enforced for 24 h, where low carbohydrate (LCHO 3 g kg−1) or high carbohydrate (HCHO 10 g kg−1) diets were provided. Twenty-four hours later, participants completed an 8 × 3 min interval running session at 85 {\%} vVO2peak followed by 3-h monitored recovery. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, immediately post- and 3-h post-exercise, which were analyzed for interleukin-6, serum iron, ferritin and hepcidin. Results: Interleukin-6 was elevated (p < 0.001) immediately post-exercise compared to baseline in both conditions, but was lower in HCHO (p = 0.015). Hepcidin levels were also lower at baseline (p = 0.049) in HCHO, and a large effect (d = 0.72) indicated a trend for lower levels at 3-h post-exercise compared to LCHO. Serum iron was increased post-exercise for both trials (p = 0.001), whereas serum ferritin remained unchanged. Conclusions: Twenty-four hours of controlled low carbohydrate intake resulted in higher baseline hepcidin levels and post-exercise IL-6 responses than a high carbohydrate intake. Such hormone increases may be induced by gluconeogenic signaling of the liver, and may negatively impact an athlete’s iron metabolism.",
author = "Badenhorst, {Claire E.} and Brian Dawson and Cox, {Gregory R.} and Laarakkers, {Coby M.} and Swinkels, {Dorine W.} and Peter Peeling",
year = "2015",
month = "9",
day = "3",
doi = "10.1007/s00421-015-3252-3",
language = "English",
volume = "115",
pages = "2521--2530",
journal = "Arbeitsphysiologie",
issn = "1439-6319",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "12",

}

Acute dietary carbohydrate manipulation and the subsequent inflammatory and hepcidin responses to exercise. / Badenhorst, Claire E.; Dawson, Brian; Cox, Gregory R.; Laarakkers, Coby M.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Peeling, Peter.

In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 115, No. 12, 03.09.2015, p. 2521-2530.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute dietary carbohydrate manipulation and the subsequent inflammatory and hepcidin responses to exercise

AU - Badenhorst, Claire E.

AU - Dawson, Brian

AU - Cox, Gregory R.

AU - Laarakkers, Coby M.

AU - Swinkels, Dorine W.

AU - Peeling, Peter

PY - 2015/9/3

Y1 - 2015/9/3

N2 - Purpose: To examine the effects of 24-h controlled carbohydrate intake on next day pre- and post-exercise inflammatory and hepcidin responses. Methods: In a crossover design, 12 well-trained endurance athletes (Ht 181.08 ± 7.68 cm; Wt 74.8 ± 11.5 kg, VO2peak 68.9 ± 7.2 ml kg−1 min−1) completed two experimental (2-day) trials. On day 1, participants completed a glycogen depletion task, including a 16-km run (80 % vVO2peak) and 5 × 1 min efforts (130 % vVO2peak) separated by 2-min recovery. Subsequently, strict dietary control was enforced for 24 h, where low carbohydrate (LCHO 3 g kg−1) or high carbohydrate (HCHO 10 g kg−1) diets were provided. Twenty-four hours later, participants completed an 8 × 3 min interval running session at 85 % vVO2peak followed by 3-h monitored recovery. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, immediately post- and 3-h post-exercise, which were analyzed for interleukin-6, serum iron, ferritin and hepcidin. Results: Interleukin-6 was elevated (p < 0.001) immediately post-exercise compared to baseline in both conditions, but was lower in HCHO (p = 0.015). Hepcidin levels were also lower at baseline (p = 0.049) in HCHO, and a large effect (d = 0.72) indicated a trend for lower levels at 3-h post-exercise compared to LCHO. Serum iron was increased post-exercise for both trials (p = 0.001), whereas serum ferritin remained unchanged. Conclusions: Twenty-four hours of controlled low carbohydrate intake resulted in higher baseline hepcidin levels and post-exercise IL-6 responses than a high carbohydrate intake. Such hormone increases may be induced by gluconeogenic signaling of the liver, and may negatively impact an athlete’s iron metabolism.

AB - Purpose: To examine the effects of 24-h controlled carbohydrate intake on next day pre- and post-exercise inflammatory and hepcidin responses. Methods: In a crossover design, 12 well-trained endurance athletes (Ht 181.08 ± 7.68 cm; Wt 74.8 ± 11.5 kg, VO2peak 68.9 ± 7.2 ml kg−1 min−1) completed two experimental (2-day) trials. On day 1, participants completed a glycogen depletion task, including a 16-km run (80 % vVO2peak) and 5 × 1 min efforts (130 % vVO2peak) separated by 2-min recovery. Subsequently, strict dietary control was enforced for 24 h, where low carbohydrate (LCHO 3 g kg−1) or high carbohydrate (HCHO 10 g kg−1) diets were provided. Twenty-four hours later, participants completed an 8 × 3 min interval running session at 85 % vVO2peak followed by 3-h monitored recovery. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, immediately post- and 3-h post-exercise, which were analyzed for interleukin-6, serum iron, ferritin and hepcidin. Results: Interleukin-6 was elevated (p < 0.001) immediately post-exercise compared to baseline in both conditions, but was lower in HCHO (p = 0.015). Hepcidin levels were also lower at baseline (p = 0.049) in HCHO, and a large effect (d = 0.72) indicated a trend for lower levels at 3-h post-exercise compared to LCHO. Serum iron was increased post-exercise for both trials (p = 0.001), whereas serum ferritin remained unchanged. Conclusions: Twenty-four hours of controlled low carbohydrate intake resulted in higher baseline hepcidin levels and post-exercise IL-6 responses than a high carbohydrate intake. Such hormone increases may be induced by gluconeogenic signaling of the liver, and may negatively impact an athlete’s iron metabolism.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84946501374&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00421-015-3252-3

DO - 10.1007/s00421-015-3252-3

M3 - Article

VL - 115

SP - 2521

EP - 2530

JO - Arbeitsphysiologie

JF - Arbeitsphysiologie

SN - 1439-6319

IS - 12

ER -