We undertook a systematic reviewof maternal intrinsic risk factors associated with surgical site infection (SSI) following Caesarean section (CS). Studies published in theEnglish language from 1990 to 2007, meeting specific inclusion criteria, were identified from searches of six health and medical literature electronic databases. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Fifteen included studies found two independent risk factors for overall SSI: obesity and chorioamnionitis. Premature ruptured membrane >6 h and anaemia were associated with incisional SSI. Anaemia was associated with organ/space SSI. The maternal intrinsic risk factors identified can be used in surveillance programs to identify women at risk of SSI and to risk-adjust hospital infection rates for between-institution comparison.