A review of circular economy development models in China, Germany and Japan

Olabode Emmanuel Ogunmakinde*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

80 Citations (Scopus)
84 Downloads (Pure)


The circular economy (CE) concept is gaining traction as a sustainable strategy for reducing waste and enhancing resource efficiency. This concept has been adopted in some countries such as Denmark, Netherlands, Scotland, Sweden, Japan, China, and Germany while it is being considered by others including England, Austria, and Finland. The CE has been employed in the manufacturing, agricultural, textile, and steel industries but its implementation varies. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to identify CE implementation in three pioneering countries (China, Japan, and Germany). A critical review and analysis of the literature was conducted. The results revealed enabling and core policies/laws for the development of the CE concept. It also identified the implementation structure of the CE in China, Germany, and Japan. In conclusion, the findings of this study are expected to serve as a guide for developing and implementing the CE concept in various sectors of the economy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number27
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


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