Background/aim: Knowledge translation (KT) aims to reduce research-practice gaps. Few studies have investigated methods to build clinicians’ capacity for KT. To: (i) evaluate the impact of a multifaceted KT capacity-building intervention; (ii) understand barriers and enablers to clinicians’ use of KT; and (iii) identify useful strategies. Methods: A pre-post study to develop KT capacity amongst occupational therapy clinicians (n = 46) in a large metropolitan hospital. A customised questionaire (baseline and 18 months) identified KT-related behaviours and barriers and enablers guided by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). McNemar's tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were completed on matched data (n = 20). At follow-up additional items explored perceptions of change and usefulness of strategies. Results: At follow-up, participants had read more clinical guidelines (10 vs. 17) and more participants reported using strategies to increase the use of recommended clinical practices (P = 0.006). The main barriers at baseline were from the TDF domains of ‘attention, memory and decision processes’, ‘knowledge’ and ‘environmental context and resources’, while main enablers were from ‘social/professional role and identity’, ‘reinforcement’, ‘social influence’ and ‘beliefs about consequences’ domains. At follow-up, significant improvements were seen in ‘knowledge’ (p < 0.001), ‘environmental context & resources’ (P < 0.001), ‘skills’ (P = 0.008) ‘beliefs about consequences’ (P = 0.011), ‘beliefs about capabilities’ (P = 0.018), and ‘memory, attention & decision processes’ (P = 0.048) and participants agreed that KT had become part of the departments’ culture. Strategies perceived most useful included working as a team, having a dedicated staff member, mentoring meetings, department leader support, learning about KT over time, and training sessions. Conclusions: The KT capacity-building intervention changed one clinician-reported behaviour and perceived impact of barriers across six domains. Clinicians reported perceived improvement in understanding of – and confidence in – KT, and changes in the culture to one of engaging with KT as part of clinical practice. Further research into KT capacity building is needed.